Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):

Examining the Infallibility of the Qur'an

This article shows that the concept of "Allah" being the only influence upon Muhammad comes into serious question when one compares the Qur’an to earlier ancient Near East stories. There is no doubt that Muhammad borrowed many stories from the Jews and the Christians in Arabia -- and later incorporated them into the Qur’an. In short, there is no possible way that the Qur’an is infallible.

by Francis Shakespeare


Within the Christian community, the Holy Bible is the authoritative Word of YEHOVAH God. Christians all over the world hold both the Old and New Testaments as the final authority in which the one true God spoke. Similar to Christians, Muslims hold the Qur’an as the final revealed Word of Allah. Essentially, the Qur’an "is the source from which the Muslim community draws the primary prescriptions for regulation of daily life, and to which its people turn to find nourishment for their devotional life." [1] In general, most Christians know that the Qur’an is the Scripture used in the Islamic faith; however, what is not well known in the Christian world, including many Christian apologists in North America, is that Muslims believe the Qur’an is "eternal and uncreated". [2]

The purpose of this article is to show the reader why the idea of the Qur’an as being labeled "infallible" is an erroneous doctrine when one simply examines the stories in the Qur’an. [3] One of the major problems the Muslim scholar must explain is the existence of a considerable number of borrowed stories found in the Qur’anic text. [4] It is this author’s thesis that the doctrine of the infallibility of the Qur’an will begin to collapse once one examines the Muslim view of inspiration and certain borrowed stories found within the Qur’an.

In order to prove this thesis, the author will examine Muhammad’s "calling" and how he initially received the Qur’an. In addition, the author will also explain how the term "inspiration" is defined in the Islamic context. Next, the author will provide the reader with a few examples of borrowed religious material found in the Qur’an from Jewish, Catholic and Christian sources. The author will then argue why the Qur’an can no longer be held as infallible because of these borrowed ancient stories. Finally, the author will conclude with a short section on the "eternal" state of the Qur’an and how the borrowed material affects this teaching.

Muhammad and the Qur’an

It will be assumed that the reader is aware of Muhammad’s basic biographical background leading up to the "revelation of the Qur’an". The author believes one should have a proper understanding of who Muhammad was as a person prior to the receiving of the Islamic holy text; however, due to the constraints of this article the author will move along to the period of time when Muhammad received the first portion of the Qur’an.

According to Islamic doctrine,

"The revelation of the Qur’an began in the laila al-qadr of Ramadan (the 27th night or one of the odd nights after the 21st) after the Prophet Muhammad had passed the fortieth year of his life." [5]

In Islamic tradition, as Muhammad approached his fortieth year in age, he began to migrate to a local cave to spend time in meditation. While at this cave (on Mount Hira) in the year 609 in the Christian calendar, Muhammad was visited by the angel Gabriel or rather, by a spirit being whom he later claimed to have been Gabriel. [6] The first task Gabriel asked Muhammad to do was to read out loud. Muhammad, according to Islamic tradition, could only reply, "I do not know how to read." [7]

Some Islamic scholars state that at this moment Gabriel became frustrated with Muhammad and his inability to recite the given material. It is said that Gabriel then asked Muhammad to read three (3) times, in which the final time Gabriel stated to Muhammad, "Read in the name of your Sustainer who created humankind from a clot! Read! And your Sustainer is the Most Bountiful." In addition, author Farid Esack notes that this supposed saying from Gabriel to Muhammad makes up the first three verses of Sura 96, al-Alaq. [8]

After Muhammad’s experience in the cave with the angel Gabriel, he (Muhammad) became quite frightened. Muhammad became so terrified by the experience that he began to shake uncontrollably. [9] After Muhammad stopped shaking and his fear died down, according to Islamic tradition [10], we are told that Muhammad ran back to his wife Khadija and told her about his "experience" in the cave. Khadija then tried to calm Muhammad down by comforting him by proclaiming God’s goodness. Next, Khadija took Muhammad to her cousin Waraqa [11], who then listened to Muhammad’s so-called revelation. [12]

What is not agreed on in Islamic scholarship is the length of time between Muhammad’s first revelation (noted above in Sura 96) and his second revelation. [13] Nevertheless, the Islamic community can agree that Muhammad’s second revelation [14] is found in Sura 74:1-5. [15] One might assume that after Muhammad received his second revelation, the rest of the Qur’an would follow; however, this is not the case. The official Islamic teaching on this issue is that Muhammad received the Qur’an piecemeal for the next twenty-three years of his life up until the time of his death. [16]

For the Christian, one might ask, "How did Muhammad receive inspiration differently than from the Biblical prophets?" The author acknowledges how one could become confused on this issue without the proper understanding of the term (inspiration) according to the two faiths. For this reason the author believes it is only proper to dedicate a section on the Islamic doctrine of inspiration and how it differs from the Orthodox Christian view of this theological term.

Muhammad and Inspiration

Now that we have an understanding of the historical background on how Muhammad received the Qur’an, let us examine the doctrine of inspiration in light of Islam. In addition, the concept of the "preserved tablets" will also be examined and how this concept affects the Qur’anic text.

One issue that always seems to be at the forefront in Catholic/Christian/Muslim dialogue is the concept of the Messiah’s divinity. Muslims rightly refuse to believe that God would "stoop" so low by becoming a man. Nevertheless, in the Islamic tradition it seems Allah does share his divinity or essence with something. Islamic scholar Stefan Wild goes on to state:

"The importance of the Qur’an for Muslims and Islam is tantamount to the importance of the person of Jesus Christ for Christians and Christianity. It has been rightly observed that the Christian concept of incarnation corresponds to what one might call "illibration" in Islam. In [Catholic] Christianity the divine logos becomes man. In Islam, God’s word becomes text, a text to be recited in Arabic and to be read as an Arabic book." [17]

The concept of an "eternal" book (the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad) essentially means that "there was no written text taken down by man which might have influenced the prophet Muhammad." [18] One should look no further than to Sura 85:21-22 for a clear indication that the Qur’an is eternal. [19] The Sura states, "Nay! it is a glorious Quran, In a guarded tablet." [20]

From the Muslim perspective, it is well known that Muhammad had no outside influences on the recitation of the Qur’an. By outside influences Muslims mean: cultural, religious texts (Judaism, Catholic, Christian, and Zoroastrian), contacts with other people, or simply Muhammad’s own input. None of the above are considered factors when examining the content of the Qur’an. This concept is necessary mostly because the Qur’an "strongly denies that it is the speech or the ideas of the Prophet or, indeed, of any other man" that makes up the Qur’an [21]; the sole author of the Qur’an is Allah.

If one were to classify in theological terms how Muhammad received the Qur’an, it would surely fit under the dictation theory of inspiration. Dictation can be defined as an idea of one receiving the exact words from Allah. In the Islamic case, the angel Gabriel dictated the words of Allah to Muhammad. Moreover, the one who is receiving the inspiration (Muhammad) is limited to only what Allah has revealed. In addition, the text is verbatim the same as it was received from Allah through dictation. The recipient is not formulating it, but down to the last letter, it is as it was dictated by Allah or the angel (Islamic view) of Allah. [22]

The author of this article acknowledges that there is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of dictation. Numerous times throughout the Old and New Testaments one can easily find passages of Scripture that were dictated word-for-word from YEHOVAH God to the author of the biblical book. However, dictation is not the sole form of inspiration found in the Bible [23], whereas dictation is the only form of inspiration assumed for the Qur’an. As we shall see shortly, the belief that the Qur’an was revealed to Muhammad solely by dictation raises a number of serious questions when one examines the ancient borrowed material found in the Qur’an.

Borrowed Stories and Rituals

Now that the reader has some basic knowledge on the historical background of Muhammad’s calling, as well as an understanding of the doctrine of the "eternal" nature of the Qur’an, we can now begin to examine some of the content found in the Muslims’ holy book. In this section, the author will argue that the Qur’an is not infallible. According to what was written earlier in the article, the Qur’an attests that it is only Allah speaking through the Scriptures. In Islam, it would be considered a heresy to believe Muhammad was influenced by outside sources. It is this author’s hope that after this section of the article, the reader will be fully convinced that Allah at least was not the only influence upon Muhammad. This conclusion will in effect confront the Muslim claim for the infallibility of the Qur’an.

The author believes that in order to fully prove the theory of Muhammad borrowing from other religious sects -- whether that be Jewish, Catholic, Christian or Zoroastrian -- one should have knowledge of the historical setting in southern Arabia at the time of Muhammad. By studying the historical background of Muhammad’s era, one can then ask, "Was it possible for Muhammad to borrow stories from Jews and Christians?" Given what we know today, scholars (Muslims, Jews and Christians) have concluded that there was a large population of Jews living in southern Arabia during the time of Muhammad [24], not to mention numerous Christian sects dwelling near Muhammad. [25]

Jewish Sources [26]

In this section the author will provide stories/teachings that originated in Judaism that Muhammad later borrowed and incorporated into the Qur’an. The author will give the original saying/teaching in Judaism (and its source), along with the Qur’anic reference to follow. The author will let the reader discern for themselves if this is sufficient proof to at least question the idea of the "infallibility of the Qur’an," given what we understand about the Muslim view of inspiration.

The first story we will deal with involves two Old Testament characters, specifically Nimrod and Abraham. The Jewish source that we will rely on is Midrash Rabba also known as Genesis Rabba. Genesis Rabba is an ancient Jewish commentary giving notes and exposition on the first book of the Torah (Genesis). Moreover, the content that applies to this section is a Jewish tale about the conflict involving three parties: Abraham, Abraham’s father and Nimrod. [27]

The Jewish commentary begins with informing the audience that Abraham’s father was an idol worshipper. In addition, Abraham’s father also owned a store, which predominantly sold "images" or "idols" to the surrounding community. The legend goes on to tell us that one day Abraham’s father asked Abraham to watch over his shop. While the father was away, Abraham deliberately broke all of the images inside the store except for one idol. When the father returned to the shop he was in complete shock and quickly asked Abraham what happened to all of his possessions. Abraham’s response was that the "gods" were angry with each other and began fighting, ultimately destroying each other. The father knew that was not possible since the idols were only made of "stone" and "wood". Abraham’s response to his father was something similar in nature, "Exactly, of course they are only wood!" The father was extremely upset with his son (probably because he was made a fool of); so much so that he sent him off to Nimrod, ruler of the land. Nimrod decided Abraham deserved death and sent him to be engulfed in flames; however, Abraham never burned, nor was he ever harmed by the fire, for YEHOVAH God saved him. [28]

In the Qur’an we essentially have the same story as mentioned above. Although the borrowed material is sporadically found in the Qur’an, nevertheless it is in there. ‘Abdallah 'Abd al-Fadi cites the following chapters in the Qur’an that correspond with the Jewish tale: 2:260; 6:74-84; 21:52-72; 19:42-50; 37:81-95; 43:25-27 and 60:40 respectively. [29] The reader needs to remember that the passages cited above do not tell the Jewish story in its entirety and should not rely on a specific Qur’anic chapter for sole proof. Nevertheless, the author believes Sura 21:52-72 is the clearest example of Muhammad borrowing from the Jewish story. Within this passage (Sura 21:52-72) we certainly see many similarities between the Jewish version and the Qur’anic story.

The author does not have space to go into detail concerning all stories that are borrowed from Jewish sources; nevertheless, the author will list several more examples for the reader to examine. A second example is the story concerning the two "lustful" angels, named Harut and Marut. In the Qur’an these two angels wander around the earth "drinking wine, fornicating, killing and teaching sorcery to people." [30] Although the Jewish version is not exactly word-for-word the same as in the Qur’an, the similarities found in Midrash Yalkut, chapter 44 are striking when compared to the Qur’anic text. One last example of a borrowed source from Judaism is found in Sura al-Ma’ida 5:27-32. In this passage the Qur’an tells of two familiar Old Testament characters, Cain and Abel. The passage starts off by telling us Abel was slain by his brother Cain, but then goes on to state that Cain was instructed by a bird on how to bury his brother’s body. This particular story is found nowhere in the Tanakh [31]; however it is found in Pirkei Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 21. [32]

Several books have been written on the Jewish influence on the Qur’an, so for now the above examples should only be used as a base/reference. [33] In these few examples the author has shown the reader that the idea of Muhammad having no "outside influence" upon the Qur’an is already a misleading notion. At the end of the article the author will go into detail as to why the borrowed stories affect the Muslim claim of an "infallible" Qur’an, as well as why they affect the idea of an "eternal" Qur’an.

Christian Sources

In this section the author will examine some teachings found in the Qur’an that are also found in both Christian folklore and myths. The first story the author wishes to touch upon is a teaching that is fundamental to Orthodox Christianity: the crucifixion of the Messiah Yeshua. All professing Orthodox Christians believe the Messiah was actually crucified; it is clearly taught within the New Testament Greek text. Nevertheless, in some ancient Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphical writings, the concept of the Messiah actually being crucified comes into question.

The Second Treatise of the Great Seth, a Gnostic text found in the Codex VII of the Nag Hammadi library, is an "interesting" alternative story regarding the Messiah’s life and crucifixion. [34] The authorship of the text is ascribed to Seth [35] and the purpose of the text is to provide an "esoteric" meaning behind Yeshua’s life and death. [36] Within the Gnostic text the author wants to shed light on "what really happened" at the Messiah’s crucifixion. The text goes on to tell us that the Messiah was not really crucified, but it only appeared to the audience that he was crucified. Instead of the Messiah actually being crucified, Simon of Cyrene took his place on the cross. [37] Here is a portion of the Gnostic writing that concerns this study:

"And as for the plan that they devised about me to release their error and their senselessness, I did not succumb to them as they planned. And I was not afflicted at all. Those who were there punished me, yet I did not die in reality but in appearance, in order that I not be put to shame by them because these are my kinsfolk." [38]

This particular passage cited above from the Second Treatise from the Great Seth is essentially teaching against what Orthodox Christianity says about the crucifixion (the Messiah was actually crucified). The Second Treatise from the Great Seth is not the only Gnostic text that teaches the Messiah only appeared to be crucified [39]; nevertheless, this will be enough proof to show the Gnostic influence found in the Qur’an. We will now examine what the Qur’an teaches about the crucifixion of the Messiah.

In Sura 4:157 we read:

"And their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Marium, the apostle of Allah; and they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so (like Isa) and most surely those who differ therein are only in a doubt about it; they have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow a conjecture, and they killed him not for sure." [40]

The key similarity the author wants to point out is the emphasis on the Messiah only appearing to be crucified. As the author has already alluded to, this teaching (the Messiah only appearing to be crucified) was already a Gnostic teaching way before the start of Islam. One could even look to the ancient teaching of Basilides (lived during 1st century) who also taught that Yeshua only appeared to be crucified. [41] Basilides would later create a large following and was recognized immediately as a heretic within the early Church.

Another example of Muhammad receiving outside Christian influence is found in Sura 19:29-31. The Qur’anic text reads,

"But she pointed to him. They said: How should we speak to one who was a child in the cradle? He said: Surely I am a servant of Allah; He has given me the Book and made me a prophet." [42]

In the context of this Qur’anic passage Mary was being asked questions about her baby (Yeshua) by a group of people. Instead of Mary answering the questions herself, the Messiah in return answers the inquiries asked by the crowd. What is alarming about these two verses in the Qur’an is not just the fact that the Messiah is speaking as an infant, but that this same infancy account in the Qur’an can also be found in a much earlier Gnostic writing titled, Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior. [43]

The above comparisons are just two out of many different examples one could give in regards to "Christian" influence found in the Qur’an. ‘Abdallah ‘Abd al-Fadi provides a whole list of borrowed Christian stories found in the Qur’an [44] and Dr. Samuel Shahid dedicates an entire book comparing Christian and Islamic eschatology. [45] Within the last few pages the author has given clear evidence that Judaism and some forms of ancient Christianity [46] have influenced the content of the Qur’an. So now that we know there are borrowed materials found in the Qur’an, what does this mean for the doctrine of the infallibility of the Qur’an?


To recap what has been fleshed out in this article let us start from the beginning. First, the author described Muhammad’s calling in the cave. From this short section one can easily see Muhammad was not entirely sure "who" or "what" was speaking to him. Second, the author went on to describe the Muslim view of inspiration. This was a very significant section because it introduced the reader to how the Qur’an was supposedly revealed to Muhammad. In this section the author showed that Muslims teach that Muhammad could not have received any outside influence on the recitation of the Qur’an. Next, the author provided the reader with numerous Jewish and Christian tales found in the Qur’an.

Now that all the information has been compiled together, the author would like to propose a question: "Is the Qur’an infallible?" Or a better question to ask is, "Is it even possible for the Qur’an to be infallible once one understands the Islamic view of inspiration and examines certain borrowed materials?" This article has shown that the concept of Allah being the only influence upon Muhammad comes into serious question when one compares the Qur’an to earlier ancient Near East stories.

So to conclude, the author has to state that there is no possible way the Qur’an is infallible. The author has no doubt that Muhammad borrowed many stories from the Jews and the Christians in Arabia and later incorporated them into the Qur’an. However, does borrowing stories necessarily mean the Qur’an is no longer infallible? The author believes "borrowing" is not the main problem [47] the Muslim scholar must face, it is the sources used that pose the dilemma. [48]

To the Muslim who has been trained not to ask questions in regard to the Qur’an, the above question might seem "silly", or yet even worse, "blasphemous." However, the author of this article is completely sincere and believes the questions raised in this article are legitimate concerns if one fully believes Allah dictated the Qur’an word-for-word to Muhammad. The author believes that this topic (the infallibility of the Qur’an) should be discussed more within the scholarly community.

When researching the nature of this topic, one will find difficulties locating books dealing with historical criticisms of the Qur’an. Why is that? If one walks into a local Christian bookstore, one would find multiple books dealing with the compilation of the Bible, the "make-up" of the canon and issues regarding source and redaction criticism. There are all these books "critiquing" the Bible, but yet the Bible has stood the test of time. The author firmly believes if the Qur’an was open to such critical evaluation as the Bible is, the idea of an infallible Qur’an would not even be an issue.

-- Edited by John D. Keyser.


(1) 'Abdallah 'Abd al-Fadi. Is the Qur'an Infallible? Villach, Austria: Light of Life, 1995.
(2) Ali, A. Yusuf. The Holy Qur'an: Text, Transmission and Commentary. Brentwood, MD: Amana Corp, 1983.
(3) 'Ali, Maulana Muhammad. Muhammad the Prophet. 7th ed. Dublin, OH: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha at Islam Lahore USA Inc, 1993.
(4) Barnstone, Willis and Marvin Meyer, eds. The Gnostic Bible: Gnostic Texts of Mystical Wisdom from the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2009.
(5) Bell, Richard. Introduction to the Qur'an. London: The Edinburgh University Press, 1958.
(6) Esack, Farid. The Qur'an: A Short Introduction, Oxford: Oneworld Publishers, 2002.
(7) Geiger, Abraham. Judaism and Islam. Translated by F. M. Young. Madras, India: M.D.C.S.P.C.K. Press, 1898.
(8) Glassé, Cyril, "Koran," in The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishing, Inc., 1989.
(9) Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.
(10) Jeffery, Arthur. "Christianity in Southern Arabia." Anglican Theological Review XXVII, no. 3 (July 1945): 193-216.
www.answering-islam.org/Books/Jeffery/southarabia.htm (accessed April 19, 2010).
(11) _________. The Qur'an as Scripture. New York: Russell F. Moore Company, Inc, 1952.
(12) Leaman, Oliver, trans. The Qur'an: The Basics, by Campanini, Massimo. New York: Routledge, 2004.
(13) Medieval Hebrew: Featuring the Midrash. IV vols.,
http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/mhl/mhl05.htm (accessed April 21, 2010).
(14) Robinson, James M., ed. The Nag Hammadi Library, revised edition. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1990.
www.gnosis.org/naghamm/apopet.html (accessed April 20, 2010).
(15) Saeed, Abdullah., "Revelation," in The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia, Edited by Oliver Leaman. New York: Routledge, 2006.
(16) Sell, Edward. The Faith of Islam. 4th ed. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920.
(17) Schaff, Philip. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by D.D. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clemetina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages. Grand Rapids: W.M. B Eerdmans Publishing Company.
http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf08.vii.xi.html (accessed April 22, 2010).
(18) Shahid, Samuel. The Last Trumpet: A comparative Study In Christian-Islamic Eschatology. : Xulon Press, 2005.
(19) The Qur'an. Translated by M.H. Shakir. Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc, 1999.
(20) Von Denffer, Ahmad. 'Ulum Al-Qur'an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an. Leicester, United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation, 1994.
(21) Wagner, Walter H. Opening The Qur'an: Introducing Islam's Holy Book. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008.
(22) Wild, Stefan. The Qur'an as Text. Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science: Texts and Studies, ed. H. Daiber and D. Pingree, vol. XXVII. New York: E.J. Brill, 1996.


[1] Arthur Jeffery, The Qur'an as Scripture (New York: Russell F. Moore Company, Inc, 1952), 3.

[2] Cyril Glassé, "Koran," in Concise Encyclopedia of Islam

[3] Ahmad Von Denffer states "The most important distinction between the Qur'an and all other words or writings therefore is that the Qur'an is the speech from Allah, revealed in its precise meaning and wording through the Angel Gabriel, transmitted by many, inimitable, unique and protected by Allah Himself against any corruption." One can find this quote in, 'Ulum Al-Qur'an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an (Leicester, United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation, 1994), 21. Thus, the Qur’an is seen as the verbatim speech of Allah, purely divine without any human element. This understanding implies the absolute correctness and infallibility of the Qur’an.

[4] As we shall see in this paper, it is quite obvious Muhammad borrowed ancient stories and concepts from Rabbinic Judaism and heretical Christianity.

[5] Denffer, 'Ulum Al-Qur'an: An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur'an (Leicester, United Kingdom: The Islamic Foundation, 1994), 24.

[6] Maulana Muhammad 'Ali, Muhammad the Prophet, 7th ed. (Dublin, OH: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha at Islam Lahore USA Inc, 1993), 38.

[7] Ibid. The author wants to point out that the first response to Gabriel is not solely agreed upon in the Islamic scholarly community; nevertheless, the interpretation the author provides is adequate for this study.

[8] Farid Esack, The Qur'an: A Short Introduction (Oxford: Oneworld Publishers, 2002), 39-40.

[9] Muhammad Ali, Muhammad the Prophet, 39.

[10] Predominately in Sahih Bukhari. See also Denffer, 'Ulum Al-Qur-an, 25.

[11] Waraqa, according to Islamic sources, was a Christian. However, Waraqa was by no means a follower of Orthodox Christianity. Waraqa is known as a believer in monotheism and early supporter of Muhammad but he died shortly after Muhammad received his first "revelations".

[12] Muhammad Ali, Muhammad the Prophet, 39-40.

[13] Ibid., 40.

[14] Or visitation from Gabriel.

[15] Denffer, 'Ulum Al-Qur-an, 27.

[16] Richard Bell, Introduction to the Qur'an (London: The Edinburgh University Press, 1958), 38.

[17] Stefan Wild, The Qur'an as Text, Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science: Texts and Studies, ed. H. Daiber and D. Pingree, vol. XXVII (New York: E.J. Brill, 1996), 137.

[18] Ibid.

[19] In relations to this verse, Muslim scholar Abdullah Yusuf Ali states that "God’s message is not ephemeral. It is eternal." One can find this quote in Ali’s most famous work The Holy Qur'an: Text, Transmission and Commentary (Brentwood, MD: Amana Corp, 1983), 1717, footnote 6066.

[20] The Qur'an, trans. M.H. Shakir (Elmhurst, NY: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc, 1999), 614. The "guarded tablet" or also known as the "preserved tablets" is one way to describe the heavenly nature of the Qur’an. In general, most modern Muslim scholars believe the Qur’an is eternal and uncreated. However, the author realizes that there was a debate over this issue (eternal Qur’an) beginning in the 9th century. For reference one should look to: Edward Sell, The Faith of Islam, 4th ed. (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920), 110 and Walter H. Wagner, Opening The Qur'an: Introducing Islam's Holy Book (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2008), 145-148. See also, Oliver Leaman, trans., The Qur'an: The Basics, by Campanini, Massimo (New York: Routledge, 2004), 13-14.

[21] Abdullah Saeed, "Revelation," in The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia.

[22] Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 80.

[23] Ibid., 73-85.

[24] Bell, Introduction to the Qur'an, 9-10.

[25] Arthur Jeffery, "Christianity in Southern Arabia," Anglican Theological Review XXVII, no. 3 (July 1945), www.answering-islam.org/Books/Jeffery/southarabia.htm.

[26] 'Abdallah 'Abd al-Fadi, Is the Qur'an Infallible? (Villach, Austria: Light of Life, 1995), 315-316. For this entire section (Jewish Sources), the author is relying on this source. The author conveniently shows matching chapters in the Qur'an to the corresponding Jewish tales.

[27] It needs to be noted that this story in the Genesis Rabba is not found within the Old Testament canon.

[28] Medieval Hebrew: featuring the Midrash, IV vols., http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/mhl/mhl05.htm. One can look to this website for the entire context of the story. The author simply wanted to summarize the main points which will be applicable once the Qur’anic text is examined.

[29] 'Abd al-Fadi, Is the Qur'an Infallible?, 315.

[30] Ibid., 316. The reference in the Qur’an is Sura al-Baqara 2:96.

[31] TaNaK is a named used to refer to the Hebrew Bible. The name itself (TaNaK) is an acronym that stands for: Torah (Books of Moses), N'vi-im (Prophets) and K'tuvim (Writings). One can look to this website for further reference: http://hebrewresources.com/tanak1.htm

[32] 'Abd al-Fadi, Is the Qur'an Infallible?, 315.

[33] One should look to: Geiger, Abraham, Judaism and Islam, trans. F.M Young (Madras, India: M.D.C.S.P.C.K. Press, 1898).

[34] Willis Barnstone and Marvin Meyer, eds., The Gnostic Bible: Gnostic Texts of Mystical Wisdom from the Ancient and Medieval Worlds (Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2009), 485.

[35] The name Seth appears nowhere in the actual document itself.

[36] Barnstone and Meyer, eds., The Gnostic Bible, 485.

[37] Ibid., 485-486.

[38] Ibid., 489.

[39] James M. Robinson, ed., The Nag Hammadi Library, revised edition (San Fransico: HarperCollins, 1990), www.gnosis.org/naghamm/apopet.html. (accessed April 20, 2010). The Apocalypse of Peter is another ancient Gnostic text that teaches the Messiah only appeared to be crucified to the people. One can view the writing at the above website for reference.

[40] M. H. Shakir, trans., The Qur'an, 92.

[41] Barnstone and Meyers, ed., The Gnostic Bible, 485.

[42] Shakir, trans., The Qur'an, 287.

[43] Schaff, Philip, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. D.D. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clemetina, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First Ages (Grand Rapids: W.M. B Eerdmans Publishing Company), http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf08.vii.xi.html. (accessed April 22, 2010).

[44] 'Abd al Fadi, Is the Qur'an Infallible?, 317.

[45] Samuel Shahid, The Last Trumpet: A Comparative Study In Christian-Islamic Eschatology (Xulon Press, 2005).

[46] Notably Gnostic Christianity.

[47] There is no denying the New Testament writers quoted the Old Testament.

[48] The author believes it is the borrowing of the Gnostic texts that pose the biggest problem for the Muslim scholar. Although certain teachings about the Messiah in the Gnostic writings line up with the Qur’an’s view of the Messiah; nevertheless, the Gnostic writings as a whole view God in an entirely different way than orthodox Muslims do. The Gnostics believed the material world to be evil, in addition to believing YEHOVAH was the "evil god" and that Lucifer was the "good god."


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Hope of Israel Ministries
P.O. Box 853
Azusa, CA 91702, U.S.A.

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