Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):

The Revised Christian PASSOVER Haggadah

Instruction Manual

Celebrating the PASSOVER

by HOIM Staff

The Passover is a time of joy and rejoicing, tempered with a mixture of sorrow. On that night, YEHOVAH God delivered our forefathers from Egyptian slavery and bondage by slaying all the firstborn in the land of Egypt. Our deliverance, however, necessitated the death of others.

The Passover was never intended by YEHOVAH to be a time of weeping, mourning, or sorrow -- but of the joy and happiness surrounding deliverance, liberty, and newfound freedom from servitude and slavery. This original freedom was made possible by two elements -- 1) the blood of the slain Passover lambs placed over the doors of the Israelites' houses; and 2) the intervention of YEHOVAH God Almighty to slay the Egyptian firstborn, sparing all the firstborn of the Israelites whose houses had the sign of the blood. Therefore, our joy is alloyed with a certain solemnity and awareness of the death of others, who refused to obey YEHOVAH God.

The blood of the Passover lambs, offered down through history, represented in symbolic form the blood of YEHOVAH's true Passover Lamb -- Yeshua the Messiah. As Paul wrote, "For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us. Therefore let us keep the feast" (I Corinthians 5:7-8). Yeshua is our Passover Lamb, slain for us, that our sins might be erased and forgiven. However, it is not his shed blood that saves us. As Paul the apostle wrote, "or when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. . . . But God commended his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now JUSTIFIED BY HIS BLOOD, we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if, when we were enemies, we were RECONCILED to God by the DEATH of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be SAVED BY HIS LIFE" (Romans 5:6-10).

Passover does not celebrate the death of the Lamb of YEHOVAH God, but rather our reconciliation to YEHOVAH through Yeshua's death, and our salvation through his resurrection! It is therefore a glorious festival of deliverance and salvation. It should not be a time of sorrowful mourning, or sober-minded heaviness of spirit, or weeping and crying. Although we should remember the suffering and travail that the Messiah went through for those of us of Israel, and we should remember the death of the Egyptians who refused to repent of holding our Israelites forebears in slavery, our focus during Passover should be on what YEHOVAH God and the Messiah have done for us, rescuing us from bondage, delivering us from sin, restoring us to freedom and liberty in YEHOVAH's grace and under His protection, as we obey Him and follow His truth. We should focus and concentrate on the tremendous SALVATION that the Messiah, our Passover Lamb, bought for those of us of Israel!

The Passover is not a time of unbounded joy, such as the Feast of Tabernacles. Three references are found in the Torah, all centering on the Feast of Sukkoth or Tabernacles (see Deuteronomy 16:14-15). No such reference is found concerning Passover, because that season was a time of death for many Egyptians, and YEHOVAH God says, "Do not rejoice in the fall of your enemy, and let not your heart be glad when he stumbles" (Proverbs 24:17).

Nevertheless, we do rejoice in YEHOVAH's salvation and deliverance, provided for us through the Passover, particularly the Messiah, our Passover Lamb, who loved us so much that he willingly gave up his life for us, that we might enter the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God!

Preparing for the Passover

During the days before the Passover, all leavened items should be removed from our dwellings or homes. These include all breads and cakes and cookies that contain yeast or baking soda. Preparation for the Passover begins, therefore, with a thorough cleaning.

This cleaning culminates in a ceremonial search for leaven the night before Passover. All in the family should look through the house for any leavening which might be left, especially the kitchen, bathrooms, or any locations where leaven would likely be found.

As we ready our houses for the Passover, we should also prepare our hearts, getting rid of any spiritual "leaven" in our lives that we know about. We should prepare our hearts to seek YEHOVAH God, and to serve Him. The Passover dinner itself is called a "Seder," which means "order of service." Tradition teaches that in each generation we must consider ourselves as if we personally have been freed from Egypt -- a type of sin. As we prepare for this experience of personal redemption, let us put far from us all leaven of sin hidden within our hearts and minds.

The Passover Seder Plate

Upon the Passover table is a Seder plate for each individual. On this plate are the symbolic and ceremonial items of the Passover. There are bitter herbs, a sweet apple mixture, parsley, horseradish, and a lamb shank bone. These are all part of the story of the Passover. Each is placed separately on the Seder plate, with a glass of salt water in the center. Many Jews also add a roasted egg, saying it is a symbol of "life." However, the "egg" from antiquity was a universal pagan symbol of fertility, especially devoted to the goddess of fertility in the springtime -- Semiramis, Venus, Aphrodite, etc., also known as "Easter." Since we do not want to have anything to do with paganism, we do not add the "egg" to the Seder plate, as many Jews do, who inculcated a pagan symbol in the Passover!

The Order of the Passover

The First Cup of Wine -- the Cup of Sanctification

As Yeshua began his final Passover-type Seder, with his disciples, he shared a cup with his disciples, and said to them: "Take this and divide it among you. For I tell you I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes" (Luke 22:17, 18). The traditional blessing asked upon the wine is the prayer:

After the blessing is recited by all, together in unison, under the direction of the leader, each drinks from his glass of wine. (If desired, the wine may be diluted with water. In cases where wine cannot be drunk due to medicinal reasons, grape juice may be substituted instead.)

At this point, the traditional Jewish family each washes their hands in a ceremonial bowl of water passed around.

The Four Questions

The Passover is meant to be a time of instruction and remembrance of our ancestors coming out of Egypt, and the suffering they went through, and the manner of their deliverance. YEHOVAH God said, "And it shall be, when your children say to you, 'What do you mean by this service?' that you shall say, 'It is the Passover sacrifice of the LORD, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households'" (Exodus 12:26-27).

Traditionally, the youngest child present (or one of them) rises and asks these four questions:

"On all other nights we do not dip our vegetables even once. On this night why do we dip them twice?"

We Answer the Four Questions

Why do we do these things? Because YEHOVAH God commanded: "And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and thy sons forever" (Exodus 12:24). At this point, the leader answers these four questions, explaining the meaning of the Passover symbols.

The Unleavened Bread

All other nights we eat bread made with leaven, but on Passover we eat only unleavened bread. As the children of Israel fled from Egypt, they did not have time for their dough to rise. Instead, the hot desert sun baked it flat. But even more than that, leaven during the Days of Unleavened Bread represents sin. As Paul wrote:

"Don't you know that a little yeast works through the whole dough? Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast -- as you really are. For Messiah, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed for us" (I Corinthians 5:7).

But there is more to the story than that. Flat bread, or unleavened bread, in the Bible is called the "bread of affliction." YEHOVAH says, "You shall eat no leavened bread with it [the Passover lamb, which represented Yeshua the Messiah, our Passover lamb]: seven days you shall eat unleavened bread with it, that is, the bread of affliction (for you came out of the land of Egypt in haste), that you may remember the day in which you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life" (Deuteronomy 16:3). We need to make a careful distinction here: The LAMB represented Yeshua the Messiah -- not the unleavened bread. It represented "affliction." The Hebrew word here for "affliction" is oniy and means "depression, misery, affliction, trouble." It is used also in Genesis 16:11; 31:42; 41:52.

Therefore, the unleavened bread here pictures the sufferings of the Messiah. It is a mistake to think of the unleavened bread as picturing the Messiah himself. During the rest of the year, the Messiah is pictured as the "bread of life" -- not as "bread of affliction." He said, speaking of normal, raised bread, "I am the bread of life" (John 6:48). The word used there is artos, meaning leavened bread. The bread eaten at the last supper was artos, or leavened bread, which pictures the Messiah as the "bread of life" giving his life for us. In John 6:51 he said we are to eat of this bread, and we will live forever. Yeshua added, "the bread that I shall give is my flesh, which I shall give for the life of the [Israelite] world" (John 6:51).

However, during Passover week, it is the Lamb that pictures the Messiah! The unleavened bread eaten during the Passover dinner technically pictures the suffering, affliction, and misery that the Messiah went through for us! However, the unleavened bread is also called "the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth" (I Corinthians 5:8). Leaven, during Passover, pictures "the leaven of malice and wickedness" (same verse). It also pictures false teaching and false doctrine (Matthew 16:6-12).

Leavening, at this time, therefore, pictures the doctrines and teachings and ways of Satan the devil -- malice and wickedness, false doctrine and evil. It is that which corrupts the soul and changes the essence of that which is good to that which is evil, and contaminated.

Unleavened bread, on the other hand, is the bread of suffering, affliction, and sincerity and truth. There is a vital relationship between these things. It is through suffering and affliction that we arrive at sincerity and truth. Suffering produces humility and meekness of mind. The Messiah himself "learned he obedience by the things which he suffered" (Hebrews 5:8). David wrote of this connection, saying, "Before I was afflicted I went astray: but now have I kept thy word" (Psalm 119:67). He added: "It is good for me that I have been afflicted; that I might learn thy statutes" (Psalm 119:71). Thus the unleavened bread pictures afflictions, which bring about sincerity, humility and truth -- and purge out insincerity, lies, deceit, malice, hypocrisy, pride, arrogance, and all forms of wickedness.

Let's really understand this -- by tradition, the Jews during Passover put out a separate plate of three unleavened breads wrapped together in a napkin. None of this is mentioned in the Scriptures, but nevertheless it is significant. This is called the "Afikomen," a Greek word, interestingly, which means "he that comes," or, "he comes" -- an obvious allusion to the Messiah himself, the Son of YEHOVAH God, to those who believe and understand. However, the Jews who partake of this today do not know why it is called that -- it is, simply, to them, "tradition"!

In the middle of the table, in a separate plate, the "Afikomen"-- three unleavened breads wrapped together in a napkin -- is placed. This is called, interestingly, the "Unity." Some consider it representative of the three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Others say it represents YEHOVAH God the Father, the Priesthood, and Israel. However, for Christians it has a far deeper meaning than that -- the highest unleavened bread represents YEHOVAH God the Father, and His sufferings -- for He certainly suffered and was afflicted in all the afflictions of His beloved Son -- in a sense, He agonized and suffered even more than the Messiah, even as a human father feels deep pain when he sees his only son go through excruciating pain, injustice, and unjust suffering. The story of Abraham, who was willing to sacrifice his own son Isaac, is a wonderful type of the suffering the Father endured seeing His only Son being crucified for our sins (compare Genesis 22).

The second or middle unleavened bread represents the suffering of Yeshua the Messiah, our Savior, who was beaten and scourged and crucified for our sins (John 19:1-3; Hebrews 12:2-4). The bottom unleavened bread represents the suffering of "Israel" -- or the "Israel of YEHOVAH God" (Galatians 6:16), meaning the Israelite people of YEHOVAH, especially the true spiritual people of YEHOVAH, who will be the "bride of the Messiah" when he returns (Revelation 19:7-9). We, too, must endure suffering, following in the footsteps of the Messiah (I Peter 2:21-25). David wrote, "Many are the afflictions of the righteous" (Psalm 34:19). As Paul and Barnabas put it, "we must through much tribulation enter the kingdom of God" (Acts 14:22).

The Leader continues: "If the children will cover their eyes, I will hide the Afikomen (does so). Just as I have hidden the Afikomen, so the Messiah was hidden -- placed in a tomb out of sight-- for three days. But just as the Afikomen will return to complete the Passover, so the Messiah rose from the dead to become our Eternal Savior and Redeemer. Also, as the Afikomen is "hidden" for a time, so the Messiah ascended into Heaven, where he is now hidden from our view, and now sits at the right hand of the Father." (At the end of the Passover Seder, when the "missing" portion of the Afikomen is found and returned, it pictures not only the risen Messiah, but also the returning Messiah from heaven -- at the end of the age!

The leader now breaks a piece from the other half of the middle piece, and distributes the remainder to the people at the table, passing it round the table. The leader says: "Now let us share a piece of this unleavened bread of Passover." He recites the traditional prayer over bread:

The Leader then removes the middle unleavened bread and breaks it in half! The reason the middle piece is broken is not clear in Jewish tradition. However, it beautifully pictures Yeshua, his body being "broken" for us.

The Leader then says: "Just as the middle piece of unleavened bread is broken, Messiah himself was afflicted and broken. One half is wrapped in a white cloth, just as Messiah's body was wrapped for burial" (wraps the Afikomen).

The Maror -- The Bitter Herbs

The Leader: then point out that on all other nights, we eat all kinds of vegetables, but on Passover we eat only maror, bitter herbs. This could be lettuce, mustard greens, parsley, etc. However, usually horseradish is generally used, as it is truly a "bitter herb" and can bring tears to the eyes, symbolizing the bitterness of bondage and slavery in Egypt! It also symbolizes the bitterness and bondage we suffered while enslaved to sin, and our trials and tests and afflictions as Christians (Acts 14:22; Psalm 34:19). These verses may be quoted. He may also quote from Exodus:

". . . so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites and worked them ruthlessly. They made their lives bitter with hard labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields" (Exodus 1:12-14).

The leader puts some maror between two pieces from the bottom unleavened bread, making a "Hillel sandwich." He says something like this:

Leader: As we scoop some maror onto a piece of unleavened bread, let us allow the bitter taste to cause us to shed tears of compassion for the sorrow that our ancestors knew thousands of years ago.

All, lifting up the unleavened bread with the maror:

"Blessed are You, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, who has set us apart by His word, and commanded us to eat bitter herbs."

All then eat, experiencing the "bitter herbs." The horseradish, if used, will probably bring a few tears to a few eyes, reminding us of the tears and pain of slavery and bondage to sin.

We Dip the Kharoset

Leader: On all other nights, we do not dip our vegetables even once. Tonight, we dip them twice -- we have already dipped the unleavened bread into the bitter herbs. Now we dip a sprig of parsley, one of the bitter herbs, into a cup of salty water, and eat it. This is to remind us of the tears that were shed by the Israelites in their bitter bondage as the built the treasure cities of Pharaoh.

Lifting the kharoset, the brown apple mixture, the Leader says: "The children of Israel toiled to make treasure cities for Pharaoh, working in brick and clay. We remember this task in a mixture called kharoset, made from chopped apples, honey, nuts, and wine. Let us once again scoop some bitter herbs onto a small piece of unleavened bread. But this time, before we eat, let us dip the herbs into the sweet kharoset."

All: (Lifting the unleavened bread with the maror and kharoset)

"We dip the bitter herbs into kharoset to remind ourselves that even the most bitter of circumstances can be sweetened by the hope we have in YEHOVAH God."

All eat of the mixture of the bitter herbs and the kharoset.

Leader: On all other nights, we eat either sitting or reclining, but tonight only reclining. The first Passover was celebrated by a people enslaved -- still in bondage. The children of Israel were instructed to eat the Passover in haste, their loins girded, their staffs in their hands, their sandals on their feet, awaiting departure from the furnace of Egypt. Today, we all recline, and freely ENJOY the Passover Seder!

All together recite: "Once we were slaves, but now we are FREE!"

All: Messiah said, "Come unto me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest" (Matthew 11:28).

The Passover Saga

The saga of the Passover is a story of miracles, redemption, wonders, and the mighty power of YEHOVAH God displayed on the behalf of His people Israel to deliver and save them, and to overcome and punish the evil. The following story or "telling" of the Passover, and its meaning, may be done by several "readers," each chosen to read a section. Or it may be summarized by the host, and given as a shorter recitation.

Reader #1: The LORD had promised the land of Israel to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Yet here were their children in Egypt. The Pharaoh who had come to power feared them, and thought, These foreigners in our midst are prospering and have grown numerous. What if they join up with our enemies, and turn against us? He decided to exert greater control and authority over them, imposing harsh and bitter tyranny over them, brutal government, making them slaves. Still, YEHOVAH God blessed His people Israel, and they multiplied.

Reader #2: Pharaoh grew more frightened, and ordered that every male baby should be killed. Pharaoh commanded, "Every son that is born you shall cast into the river Nile." But one couple, trusting in YEHOVAH God, hid their baby boy for three months, and then put him in a basket, and let it drift with the current of the Nile. Pharaoh's daughter saw the basket, took pity on the child, and raised him as her own. She called him "Moses," meaning "drawn out." Miriam, the boy's sister, watched the basket float down the river, and saw the daughter of Pharaoh rescue it.

Reader #3: Moses grew up, and became aware of the suffering and travail of his people. One day, furious to see an Egyptian beating a Hebrew slave, he rose up and killed the Egyptian. Fleeing for his life, Moses left Egypt and became a shepherd in the land of Midian in Arabia.

Reader #4: The LORD, however, heard the continual groaning and cries of His people and saw their affliction. He appeared to Moses in a burning bush that didn't burn up, and when Moses drew near to investigate the phenomenon, the LORD spoke to him and commissioned him to go to Pharaoh to bring YEHOVAH's message to the king of Egypt, telling him, "Let My people go!

The Passover Lamb

In the book Judaism, we read: "Rabban Gamaliel used to say: Whoever has not said the verses concerning the following three things at Passover has not fulfilled his obligation. 'Passover, unleavened bread and bitter herbs.' 'Passover,' because God passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt. 'Unleavened bread,' because our ancestors were redeemed from Egypt [and there was no time, when they left, for their dough to ferment]. 'Bitter herbs,' because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt. In each generation, every individual is obliged to feel as though he or she personally came out of Egypt, for it is written, 'You shall tell your child in that day 'It is because of what the LORD did for me when I came out of Egypt'" [Ex. 13:8]" (p. 182).

At this point the leaders says, "We have eaten the unleavened bread to remind us of the haste with which the children of Israel fled Egypt; we have tasted the bitter herbs to remind us of their bitter bondage and slavery." He now lifts up the shank bone of the lamb: This roasted shank bone represents the lamb whose blood marked the houses of the children of Israel, symbolizing their obedience to YEHOVAH's command. Lambs are no longer sacrificed since there is no Temple (Deuteronomy 16). However, this shank bone reminds us of the sacrificed lamb -- and of Yeshua, "The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the [Israelite] world!" (John 1:29). Then either the Leader or chosen readers recite the following relevant passages concerning the lambs:

Reader #1: ". . . on the tenth day of this month, each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household.

"The animals you choose must be year-old males without defect. . .

"Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month, when the people of the community of Israel must slaughter them in the evening -- toward the end of the day.

"Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the sides and tops of the door frames of their houses where they eat the lambs" (Exodus 12:3, 5-7).

Reader #2: "That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs and bread made without yeast.

"This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it is haste; it is the LORD's Passover.

"The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I WILL PASS OVER YOU. No destructive plague will even touch you when I strike Egypt" (Exodus 12:8, 11, 13).

Leader: We are reminded by Moses that it was the LORD Himself who redeemed the children of Israel from slavery:

Leader: "On that same night I will pass through Egypt . . .
All: "I, and not an angel."

Leader: "and strike down every firstborn -- both men and animals --"
All: "I, and not a seraph."

Leader: "and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt."
All: "I, and not a messenger."

Leader: "I am the LORD."
All: "I myself and none other."

Since the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed and razed to the ground in 70 A.D. by the Romans, and no longer stands, lamb is not eaten at the Passover by Ashkenazi Jews. However, the Sephardic Jews often do still eat the lamb during the meal. It is probable that the Orthodox Ashkenazi Jews dispensed with the eating of lamb because of their deep hatred for Messiah Yeshua, and the early Nazarenes, who constantly portrayed Yeshua as the "Lamb of YEHOVAH God," which grated on the early Rabbis of that period. When the Temple was destroyed, they wanted to do away with the memory of "Yeshua," the "Lamb of YEHOVAH God," so they stopped eating any "lamb" at Passover, and substituted the pagan "egg" as part of their Seder plate instead!

However, as Israelite Christians and followers of Messiah Yeshua celebrate the Passover, the shank bone remains to remind us of the sacrificial Lamb of YEHOVAH God who died for the sins of His people Israel. In addition, I believe we should eat lamb with the regular meal Passover meal which follows the Seder, as a reminder and remembrance of Yeshua, "the Lamb of YEHOVAH God" (John 1:29, 36). Of course, we do not "sacrifice" it since there is no Temple of YEHOVAH God existing today. It is not proper to sacrifice a lamb in one's own backyard today, as YEHOVAH forbids it (Deuteronomy 16:5-6).

Leader says, in effect: We who have trusted Yeshua the Messiah, believe he is the Lamb of YEHOVAH God, our Passover. Like the ancient Israelites, we know it was YEHOVAH God Himself -- not an angel -- YEHOVAH God Himself, and not a seraph -- YEHOVAH God Himself, and not a messenger, who achieved final redemption from sin and death.

YEHOVAH Himself, through Yeshua, the Son of YEHOVAH God, who takes away the sin of the world.

All: "For YEHOVAH God so loved the [Israelite] world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For YEHOVAH sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved" (John 3:16-17).

Dayenu -- "It Would Have Been Sufficient"!

Leader: "They will celebrate your abundant goodness and joyfully sing of your righteousness" (Psalm 145:7).

How great is YEHOVAH's goodness to us! For each of His acts of mercy, and kindness, we declare dayenu -- "it would have been sufficient."

Leader: "If the LORD had merely rescued us, but had not judged the Egyptians

All: dayenu!

If He had only destroyed their gods, but had not parted the Red Sea

All: dayenu!

If He had only drowned our enemies, but had not fed us with manna

All: dayenu!

If He had only led us through the desert, but had not given us the Sabbath

All: dayenu!

If He had only given us the Torah, but not the land of Israel,

All: dayenu!

Leader: But the Holy One, blessed be He, provided all of these blessings for our ancestors. And not only these, but so many more!

All: Blessed are You, O YEHOVAH God, for You have, in mercy, supplied ALL our needs. You have given us Messiah, forgiveness for sin, life abundant and life everlasting.


The Passover Supper

After the first part of the Seder is completed, at this point, the table is cleared off, an intermission occurs, and the table is re-set with the dishes and plates of the regular festive Passover dinner -- with all the creative "panache" of the wives and their creations placed on the table. We recommend when possible that the best tableware, dishware, and eating utensils be used, as this meal is to be a "celebration of life."

The leader should lead those present in blessing the LORD, and offering thanks to YEHOVAH God for all His providence, as well as for the Passover meal. All should rejoice and eat the Passover dinner with celebration, joy, and pleasant, bounteous fellowship.

Following the supper, the Leader once again takes up with the Seder service, bringing it to completion, even as Yeshua did on that last night, when after the supper he brought forth the bread and wine, as symbols of his broken body and shed blood, for us to remember him. So we continue with the rest of the Seder:

The Afikomen

Leader: It is time for us to share the Afikomen, the unleavened bread which pictures the suffering and agony the Messiah went through on our behalf.

Throughout the year, we partake of the Kiddush (the bread and wine ceremony, picturing the Messiah's body and shed blood). This dates back to the time when Melchisedek brought forth bread and wine for Abraham (Genesis 14:18). In celebrating the "Kiddush" we "remember" the Lord's death till he returns (I Corinthians 11:23-25). As the apostle Paul said, "As often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till he comes" (I Corinthians 11:26). This Kiddush is partaken of "often," by individual families, often at the Sabbath evening meal, or when converted guests come over for dinner. See our article on Are We Neglecting the Sacred Fellowship Meal? The "Kiddush" includes the use of challah bread, the traditional leavened Jewish bread eaten on the Sabbath, which is "broken." It represents the Messiah who is the "bread of life" (John 6:48).

However, during the Passover, we do not eat of leavened bread at all. Therefore, we partake of the unleavened bread, which pictures the sufferings of the Messiah, as the "bread of affliction."

The leader explains this to the group, and then focuses on the second unleavened bread. The unleavened bread is broken and distributed, in olive size pieces, to each of the guests.

Leader: Messiah broke the unleavened bread and gave thanks to YEHOVAH God.

All: Blessed are You, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth.

Leader: It was then that the Messiah added the words,

Paul records the words of the Messiah:

Leader: Let us now eat the unleavened bread, meditating on the broken body and sufferings of the Lamb of YEHOVAH God who takes away the sins of Israel. Let us allow the taste to linger in our mouths.

Leader: Let us fill our cups for the second time this evening. (Lifting the cup) This is the cup of redemption, symbolizing the blood of the Passover lamb. It was the cup "after supper" with which the Messiah identified himself. The Leader quotes from Luke's gospel:

"Likewise he also took the cup after supper saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for you'" (Luke 22:20).

Yeshua the Messiah lifted the cup saying,

The gospel of Matthew tells us:

"And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom" (Matthew 26:27-29).

The apostle Paul recorded the words of the Messiah:

"This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me" (I Corinthians 11:25).

Leader: The prophet Isaiah reminds us,

It is our own righteousness that falls short. As it is written,

Leader: "There is none righteous, no, not one" (Romans 3:10).

All: "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of YEHOVAH God" (Romans 3:23).

All: "All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all" (Isaiah 53:6).

Just as the blood of the lamb brought salvation in Egypt, so the atoning death of Yeshua the Messiah can bring salvation to all those of Israel who believe. As the apostle Paul declared,

""For when we were still without strength, Christ died for the ungodly . . . But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while were yet sinners, Christ died for us" (Romans 5:6-8).

"For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him" (II Corinthians 5:21).

The leader prays over the cup of wine, and then all recite together:

All: "Blessed are you, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, who sent Messiah, your beloved Son, to die for us, in our stead, so that we might be redeemed from death and live forever in your Kingdom!"

The second cup -- the Cup of Redemption -- is then drunk by all (again, grape juice may be used by those who cannot medically drink wine itself).

The Time of the End

Traditional Jewish families set an extra cup at the table, and an extra place setting, for the prophet Elijah who, it was believed, would come at the "time of the end," to herald the coming of the Messiah. This cup is for Elijah the Prophet, Eliyahu HaNavi. At this time traditionally one of the children opens the door to see if Elijah is coming. We should not do this because the prophecy which said Elijah would come found its fulfillment in John the Baptist. Yeshua clearly taught that the ministry of John fulfilled the prophecy of Malachi. "This is Elias (Elijah)", Yeshua said, "which was for to come." Nevertheless, thousands of Christians have been led to believe that John did not really fulfill the prophecy of Malachi, and that the coming of Elijah is yet future! To our knowledge, the tradition of the extra cup was not done during the time of the Messiah, but was an innovation of the Rabbis during post-Temple times.

However, we are living in the end times, and so it is appropriate now to focus the remainder of the Passover to the future, and the coming of the Messiah when we will partake of the Passover with Yeshua himself!

The first time Yeshua came to teach his disciples, to build his Ecclesia, and to give his life as a ransom for many of Israel. The second time he will return in awesome power and glory to reign over the earth with his Father, YEHOVAH!

The second coming of the Messiah, Yeshua our Messiah, the Anointed lord, is drawing very close. We don't have much time, very many years, left. The days of urgency are here, and the time has come to awaken from our sleep and our reveries, and to be alert, on our toes, vigilant, and to carefully WATCH! Yeshua said of these days:

"But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. . . . Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come" (Matthew 24:37-42).

Perilous times are coming, and have already begun. But it is darkest just before the final Dawn of the New Age and the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God!

The Third Cup of Wine -- The Cup of Praise

The Jews normally have four cups of wine during the Passover, this tradition apparently going back at least to the Middle Ages, or after the beginning of the Diaspora in 135 A.D. The second cup they drink is called the "cup of plagues," and each person dips his finger in the cup of wine ten times, reciting each of the ten plagues which YEHOVAH God used to afflict the Egyptians.

However, in Yeshua's time, at the "last supper," the gospel writer Luke mentions two cups of wine during that meal (see Luke 22:17, 20). We have no reason to believe that the second cup of the modern Jewish liturgy, the "cup of plagues," or "the cup of judgment," was part of the Passover liturgy during the time of the Messiah. Therefore, I have left it out of this Christian Passover Hagaddah! It is not necessarily wrong to have it, but I have chosen to keep as close as possible to the Passover as it was celebrated in the time of the Messiah, by the New Testament Ecclesia of YEHOVAH God.

However, since we are now celebrating the Passover in the days just prior to the SECOND COMING of the Messiah, it seems fitting and very appropriate that we should conclude the Passover with a final cup of wine -- called the "Cup of Praise," as we look forward to the soon coming of YEHOVAH God, Master, Ruler and King -- and our Messiah and Savior, Yeshua the Messiah.

"Three" is YEHOVAH's number of decision, finality, judgment, completion. Paul besought YEHOVAH God three times to remove his "thorn in the flesh." Yeshua prayed to YEHOVAH three times, "Not my will but thine be done." Peter denied the Messiah three times, and later acknowledged that he loved him three times. There are three patriarchs, three divisions in Israel (Priests, Levites, and people). There are three unleavened breads in the Passover Seder.

Even so, we celebrate Passover with three cups of wine -- the cup of sanctification, the cup of redemption, and the final one, the "Cup of Praise," which we raise and drink to praise YEHOVAH our God for His great plan and purpose, and for His Son, our Messiah Yeshua, for calling us to be a part of his Work and his Ecclesia, and praising him that he will soon take to himself his kingdom, and reign on this Earth along with his Father!

At this time, the portion of the Afikomen which was "hidden" is searched for, and "found," and restored to the table. The Leader explains that this "missing" portion represents the resurrected Messiah, restored to his people, and the "second coming" of the Messiah, who is now "hidden" in heaven at the right hand of YEHOVAH God the Father, but who will return to this earth shortly, to complete the redemption of his people. After explaining this, the Seder continues:

Leader: "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord" (I Thessalonians 4:16-17).

All: "Behold, I tell you a mystery: We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed -- in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed" (I Corinthians 15:51-52).

Responsively, then, the Leader leads the group in reciting Psalm 136:

Leader: (Lifting the cup) Let us lift our cups and bless the Name of the LORD!

All: Blessed are You, O LORD our God, Ruler of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

We continue, praying as follows, or similarly:

"Blessed are you, O LORD, our God, King of the Universe, who gives us the fruit of the vine. We bless and praise your Name forever, for your wonderful works to the children of Israel. We bless and praise you, for calling us, for revealing your Truth to us, and for making us part of your heavenly Family. We bless and praise you, Holy Father, for your great Love. And we bless and praise you, that you will soon send Messiah Yeshua to come back and to take his Kingdom, and return Yourself to Reign on the Earth! Blessed are you, O LORD, our God, Awesome Potentate, Royal King of Eternity, Ancient of Days, and Father of all. Amen and Amen!"

As we conclude this third and final cup of wine, then, we "Toast" the coming Kingdom, the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God, shouting together,

And then, as many Jewish families and people do, we may also shout, exclaim, and pray, desirous of being with each other, at the Temple, in Jerusalem, awaiting the coming of the Messiah, and longing for the millennial Kingdom of YEHOVAH God --

This traditional toast, or salute, reminds us of our connection with the city of Jerusalem, the city of the Great King. It is from Jerusalem that the law of YEHOVAH God will go forth to all the earth, and all nations will come up to the holy city, to be taught of YEHOVAH (Isaiah 2:1-4; Micah 4:1-4). Yeshua himself loves Jerusalem, and longs for the time Jerusalem will welcome him, and return to seek him in truth and love. He prayed, "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem . . . How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing!" (Matthew 23:37).

YEHOVAH God says of His city, "I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; they shall never hold their peace day or night. You who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent, and give Him no rest till He establishes and till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth" (Isaiah 62:6-7).

David prayed, "If I forget you, O Jerusalem, Let my right hand forget its skill! If I do not remember you, let my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth -- If I do not exalt Jerusalem above my chief joy" (Psalm 137:5-6).

Singing Hymns of Worship

The last act, as the conclusion of the Passover Seder, is the singing of spiritual songs and hymns, and psalms. We read of Yeshua and the disciples on that final night:

At this time, then, we sing hymns and spiritual songs, of joy and rejoicing, praise and glory to YEHOVAH God -- to our heart's content! Let the songs explode from our lips, and burst our hearts -- let our praises and our joy ascend before the Throne of our Father in Heaven! Let the joyous songs burst forth, in ringing notes of glory and grandeur!

At the end of the song service, then, to finally conclude the Passover Seder and Haggadah, the leader says, to the group: "Our Passover Seder is now complete. We have celebrated YEHOVAH's Passover Feast as He has commanded us to do so -- at the very time He appointed it to be done, according to the Scriptures. May the Almighty look upon our efforts to obey Him, and His every Word, and bless us, as He has promised. May His Shekinah -- His Holy Presence -- go with us throughout the coming year -- and may He protect us from all harm and danger! (Psalm 91).

Leader: The LORD bless you, and keep you;
All: The LORD make his face to shine upon you, and be gracious unto you;
Leader: The LORD lift up his countenance upon you,
All: And give you peace! (Numbers 6:24-26).

Let us conclude with the traditional wish that we may celebrate Passover next year in Jerusalem. (All together in a mighty chorus, exclaim:)

This ends the Christian Passover Seder and Haggadah (story telling, or setting forth).

* * *

The Jewish family and congregation sing songs from the book of Psalms, the Hallel (Psalm 113-118). From the Church Hymnal and other sources we recommend, among many songs one may choose from, of course, the following hymns (or a similar selection):

Suggested Hymns

"Amazing Grace"
"The Holy City"
"It Is Well with My Soul"
"How Great Thou Art!"
"How Good and How Pleasant"
"El Shaddai"
"The Lord Is My Shepherd" (Psalm 23)
"Rest in the Lord" (Psalm 37)
"Come, See the Works of God" (Psalm 46)
Mt. Zion Stands Most Beautiful" (Psalm 48)
"O Thou the Shepherd of Israel Art" (Psalm 80)
"How Lovely Are Thy Dwellings" (Psalm 84)
"How Long, Eternal, Hide Thou Away?" (Psalm 89)
"Holy, Mighty Majesty!" (Psalm 99)
"When Israel Out of Egypt Went" (Psalm 114)
"Praise Belongs to God!" (Psalm 115)
"O Give Thanks Unto Our God" (Psalm 118)
"O How Love I Thy Law!" (Psalm 120)
"Praise Ye the Lord!" (Psalm 148)
"Hallelujah! Praise God!" (Psalm 146)
"America the Beautiful!"
"Battle Hymn of the Republic"
"Praise Ye the Lord, the Almighty!"

Historical Note

This Christian Passover Haggadah is based upon the elements of Scripture, both Old and New Testaments, and to some degree upon Jewish tradition where there is no conflict with the Holy Scriptures. It is based primarily upon the truths expressed in the Old Testament and the Gospel accounts of Yeshua's last supper when he introduced new elements into the Old Testament Passover. It was a final going away meal with his disciples, as a sort of "farewell dinner," and which was in many respects similar to a "Passover" Seder. Although it was held the night before the regular or normal Passover Seder (since the lambs for the true Passover Seder would not be killed till the following afternoon, of Nisan 14, at the very time our Savior would be killed as our Passover Lamb!), it was still a dinner which was held on Nisan 14, the "preparation day" of Passover, and thus was really the beginning of the celebration of "Passover" for Yeshua and the disciples on that final eve before his death as our Paschal offering.

Writes Alfred Edersheim, in The Temple:

"As the present Passover liturgy contains comparatively very few relics from New Testament times, so also the present arrangement of the Paschal table evidently dates from a time when sacrifices had ceased. On the other hand, however, by far the greater number of the usages observed in our own days are precisely the same as eighteen hundred years ago. A feeling, not of gratified curiosity, but of holy awe, comes over us, as thus we are able to pass back through those many centuries into the upper chamber where the Lord Jesus partook . . . . The leading incidents of the feast are all vividly before us -- the handing of the 'sop dipped in the dish,' 'the breaking of bread,' 'the giving of thanks,' 'the distributing of the cup,' and 'the concluding hymn.' Even the exact posture at the Supper is known to us. But the words associated with those sacred memories come with a strange sound when we find in Rabbinical writings the 'Passover lamb' designated as 'His body,' or when our special attention is called to the cup known as 'the cup of blessing, which we bless;' nay, when the very term for the Passover liturgy itself, the 'Haggadah,' which means 'showing forth,' is exactly the same as that used by St. Paul in describing the service of the Lord's Supper!" (p. 231-232).

May your Passover be joyous and happy, and filled with "shalom"!

Final Instructions

The Seder Plate

The Seder plate is the ceremonial setting for the first part of the service. Included are the items which will be partaken of in memorializing this Festive service. There should be one Seder plate per table of ten people. Included on the Seder plate should be the following items in the proportions given for each person:

Item Definition ......................................................Quantity per Person

Karpas Parsley.......................................................1 sprig per person
Maror Ground horseradish.....................................1 teaspoon per person
(preferably red)
Kharoset chopped apples, honey, nuts.............. 1 tablespoon per person
and wine
Salt water For dipping of Karpas.......................... 1 2 1/2 cup per plate
Zeroah Shank bone of a lamb.................................. 1 bone per plate

The shank bone can be obtained from a local butcher. He will know what bone you desire. Remove the meat from the bone and then roast the bone until dry and brown. The shank bone is required for only the head table, but would be good to have on each Seder plate. Place the items on the Seder plate as follows:


This item is very important for the Passover Seder service. There should be one "Unity" for each table. The Unity consists of:

1 large dinner-sized paper plate
2 dinner-sized napkins
3 unleavened breads

The three whole unleavened breads are placed inside the dinner napkin so that one unleavened bread is inside each section of the napkin. The second napkin is placed on top of the Unity.

During the service, the host or one he selects will remove the center unleavened bread, break it in half (two parts), "bury" one half in the extra napkin to be "found" ("resurrected") later. This ceremony is most important, as is described in the Passover Seder Haggadah.

Suggested Passover Menu

Following the ceremonial Passover Seder, the table is cleared, and then the principle meal is served -- the Feast meal itself. We recommend you include the following items:

Appetizers: Chopped liver, gefilte fish (if you wish) and kosher pickle spears (these may be served on one large plate)
Chicken broth with unleavened bread balls

Main Course:

LAMB -- other meat dishes may include chicken, beef, turkey, quail, fish, etc. Although Orthodox Jews do not eat lamb since the Rabbis enjoined a proscription on lamb among the Ashkenazi Jews, the Sephardic Jews do eat this traditional meat, since it is so appropriate for the Passover. We recommend that LAMB be eaten, as it is a clear and obvious reminder of Yeshua, our "PASSOVER LAMB," who was sacrificed for us! It appears the real reason the early rabbis did away with the lamb altogether was because they did not want to be reminded of the one whom they regarded as a heretic, upstart, and deceiver of the people -- Yeshua, the lamb of YEHOVAH God.


(choice of) Carrots, squash or broccoli and/or a fruit compote (definitely not peas or beans)
Potato substitute: Unleavened Bread Stuffing (Baked potatoes may be used if necessary)
Bread substitute: Unleavened bread ONLY is used. NO LEAVENED BREAD OF ANY KIND!
Dessert: Sponge Cake with Fruit, pies or cookies -- no long as there is NO LEAVEN.

Meat and Dairy Products

Modern Jews do not use any dairy products at Passover -- no cream, milk, butter, or the like. This, however, is one of those "traditions of the elders" which Yeshua condemned (see Matthew 15; Mark 7). Serving meat and dairy products at the same meal is NOT wrong, but the practice is based on a misinterpretation of the Scriptures, "Boil not a kid in its mother's milk." This could well be a prohibition against killing and eating a lamb before it has finished suckling or nursing. Or, it could be a prohibition against cooking a lamb in its own mother's milk, which would be a repulsive and cruel thing to do, symbolically as well as literally.

Rather than simply taking this Scripture literally, the Rabbis of the second Temple period added many laws to the Scriptures, putting an additional "fence" around Biblical laws, to keep the people from disobeying them. They extended a "fence" around all dairy products and forbad them to be eaten together with meat dishes. There is no evidence that Yeshua the Messiah followed this "tradition of men" (see Matthew 15; Mark 7).

However, we read in the book of Genesis, that both Abraham -- the father of all Israel -- and YEHOVAH God the Father, ate meat and dairy products together, at the same meal, at the same time. Notice!

"Then the LORD [YEHOVAH God] appeared to him by the terebinth trees of Mamre, as he was sitting in the tent door in the heat of the day. So he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing by him; and when he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the ground, and said, 'My LORD, if I have now found favor in Your sight, do not pass on by Your servant. Please let a little water be brought, and wash your feet and rest yourselves under the tree. And I will bring a morsel of bread, that you may refresh your hearts. After that you may pass by, inasmuch as you have come to your servant.' They said, 'Do as you have said.' So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah and said, 'Quickly, make ready three measures of fine meal; knead it and make cakes.' And Abraham ran to the herd, took a tender and good calf, gave it to a young man, and he hastened to prepare it. So he took butter and milk and the calf which he had prepared, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree as they ate" (Genesis 18:1-8, NKJV).

It is clearly all right to eat butter, milk, cheese, and dairy products at Passover. Interestingly, this meal Abraham prepared for the heavenly visitors was right about the time of Passover!


Coffee, Milk, Tea
Red Passover wine for the Seder cup itself -- (some dilute it with water -- that is optional) -- one 6 oz. glass per person

In areas of the country where there is a significant Jewish population, Passover ingredients and items should be readily available during Passover season at most food or grocery stores. If you have difficulty locating any items, you might ask a food store manager to order the items for you (ask for brand names like Streits, Tel Aviv, Manishchewitz and Mothers). Or, you could call a nearby synagogue and ask for assistance in procuring the items needed.

Passover Serving Schedule

The first part of the Passover meal or Seder is ceremonial and the initial place setting should have all the necessary items in place for this purpose. Following this vital part of the Passover, the serving of the dinner begins with asking grace or a blessing. Then follow the following order:

1. Bring on immediately the appetizers and unleavened bread ball soup.
2. Prepare plates for main course.
3. Remove soup bowls and Seder plates.
4. Serve main course.
5. Serve coffee and tea.
6. Remove plates.
7. Serve desserts.
After the dinner, continue with the remainder of the ceremonial Seder.

Additional Tips for the Cook(s)

1. Please remember that the Seder plates and unleavened bread must be on the tables when the people arrive. The dinner itself, however, is not served until after the ceremonial part of the Passover, which takes 45-60 minutes, more or less.

2. It may be wise to try recipes ahead of time to familiarize yourself with them and the serving size best for your own individual situation.

3. Much of the food can be prepared ahead of time and frozen, starting a week or more before the Seder (once you have an idea of the number to be served).

4. Making the soup ahead of time and freezing it is ideal, as then the chicken fat is available for use in other recipes. Also, several smaller quantities are sometimes easier to handle than one large one.

5. The cakes can be baked one at a time as time permits and then frozen until the day of the Seder.

6. The chopped liver is best made a day ahead, and the unleavened bread balls are less prone to mistakes causing toughness if made the day before.

7. The unleavened bread for the stuffing can be broken up ahead of time, the kharoset also.

8. This way, the cook(s) have only the vegetable to cook, the chicken or beef to roast, the stuffing to mix and bake, and the cake topping to prepare on the day of the Seder, besides the actual last minute preparation and serving of the dinner.

9. We have tried to make the meal "kosher style." Jewish people will understand that you have been sensitive to Jewish traditions concerning the Passover, except those which violate Scripture or the symbolism of the Messiah as our Passover Lamb. Although we seek to offend no one, we cannot endorse any "traditions" which are contrary to Scripture and the laws of YEHOVAH God, and His Word.

Suggested Passover Recipes

Unleavened Bread
4 cups flour -- preferably barley
3 to 6 Tablespoons oil
half a teaspoon salt
approximately 2/3 cup water
extra flour for rolling out

Mix flour and salt together. Make a well in the flour and pour in the oil and water. Mix until flour is moistened and a soft dough is formed (about one-half minute). If the dough is sticky add a little more flour; if too stiff add a little more water. Divide the dough into several lumps for easier rolling out. Roll out the dough on a floured surface, also using a little flour on the rolling pin to prevent the dough sticking, if you want relatively thin flat bread. The dough can also be shaped into buns or loaves if you prefer a thicker bread or get tired of rolling out. Keep in mind that the bread will have a rather dense texture and it is best not to make the buns or loaves too thick. 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick is probably fine. Bake thin bread at 350 F (180 C) for 10 to 15 minutes. Bake thicker bread at 300 or 325 F (160 C) for 20 to 30 minutes.

Flour varies considerably in the amount of moisture it contains, as well as in how finely it is milled. This affects how much water it will absorb. That is why it is not possible to give exact quantities of flour and water, but usually it is not difficult to see if the dough has the right amount of water.

I would suggest using whole grain flour, but you can use any grain or combination of grains you like. Why the variable amount of oil? I use the larger amount of oil for the bread for the Passover service and for meals when we have "company". It is more pleasant, but may be somewhat rich if you eat more than a little. If your family has a very active lifestyle, you will possibly be eating quite a lot of bread and will be more comfortable with the less rich version. For the Passover service I suggest you roll out the dough to make the somewhat flat type of unleavened bread.

1 cup chopped apples (without skin)
1/4 cup chopped nuts (preferably walnuts)
1 teaspoon honey
1 teaspoon cinnamon
3 tablespoons grape juice or wine
grated rind of 1/2 lemon

Mix all ingredients. Add enough grape juice or wine to blend the mixture. Approximate yield: 20 servings (1 tablespoon per person). This mixture is so tasty you may want to make a little more.

Chopped Liver
1/2 cup vegetable oil (approximate)
3/4 teaspoon salt
2 medium-sized onions, sliced
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1 pound liver (chicken or beef)
2 eggs, hard-boiled

Pour 1/4 cup of oil in a skillet. Add the onions. Saute for approximately 10 minutes, then remove onions and set aside. Pour more oil in the same skillet as needed. Saute the liver in it for 10 minutes or until done, stirring occasionally. Chop (meat grinder is best) onions, liver, and eggs very fine. Add the salt and pepper and mix well. Chill, form into balls (1 inch) or you may wish to serve one large portion per table. Serve cold. Serves 20.

Gefilte Fish
It is best to buy the Gefilte fish from a local supermarket. The hors d'oeuvre size works best. If you cannot find this size, the large size may be cut into one inch pieces. Don't plan on more than one or two small pieces per person as people have to acquire a taste for this. It tastes especially good with matzo and horseradish.

Chicken soup
1 large chicken (4 or 5 lbs)
2 sprigs parsley
3 quarts cold water
1 small bay leaf
1 carrot, sliced
1 tablespoon salt
2 stalks celery and tops
1/4 teaspoon pepper

Cut chicken into pieces. Place in large soup kettle with cold water. Cover and bring slowly to a boil. Add the seasonings and vegetables. Simmer gently for about 5 hours. Strain soup and chill overnight. Remove the cake of fat. (This fat can be used in the other recipes, such as the stuffing, unleavened bread balls, etc.). Reheat and add unleavened bread balls for serving. This makes about two quarts of soup (8 servings). Figure 1 cup per serving. (This recipe can be extended by adding canned chicken broth.)

Unleavened Bread Balls
2 tablespoons fat
1 teaspoon salt
2 eggs, slightly beaten
2 tablespoons soup stock or water
1/2 cup unleavened bread meal (a 1 lb. package of unleavened bread yields about 4 cups meal)

Mix fat and eggs together. Add unleavened bread meal and salt, which were first mixed together. When well blended, add soup stock or water. Cover mixing bowl and place in refrigerator for at least 20 minutes, then form into 1 1/2 inch balls. Using a two or three quart pot, bring salted water to a brisk boil. Reduce flame and into the slightly bubbling water drop balls formed from above mixture. Cover pot and cook 30-40 minutes. This should be done right away as unleavened bread balls have a tendency to become very tough if mishandled. For convenience, the unleavened bread balls may be made a day or several hours ahead of time. When preparing to serve, have soup at room temperature, or warmer, and remove unleavened bread balls from water to soup pot, allow soup to simmer for about 5 minutes. Makes 8 balls.

Roasted Chicken
For each 5 pounds of poultry, place the following in a deep roaster with a cover. (We recommend using chicken quarters.)

1 large sliced onion
1/2 cup diced celery
2 tablespoons melted chicken fat or margarine

Rub each piece of chicken with a mixture of the following:

1 teaspoon paprika
2 tablespoons unleavened bread cake meal
1 teaspoon salt
1/15 teaspoon garlic powder
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

Place the pieces of chicken on the vegetables and roast uncovered for 20 minutes at 400 degrees F. Turn the chicken over and roast 20 minutes longer. Lower the heat to 350 degrees F and add 3/4 cup boiling water for each 5 pounds. Cover tightly and continue cooking until tender (approximately 1 1/2 hours).

LAMB, Beef, or other meat dishes (all must be "clean" meats, of course -- no pork, shrimp, crab, lobster, or other "unclean" animal flesh -- see Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14) -- you may experiment with whatever dishes you desire in this respect. Rack of lamb is good, or lamb chops, Prime rib of beef, steak, etc. Although traditional Orthodox Jews avoid beef and lamb, the fact is both of these were sacrificed to YEHOVAH God during the Passover season and Feast of Unleavened Bread. It would certainly not be wrong to eat lamb or beef, therefore, as part of your Passover dinner.

Lemon Carrots
2 cups cooked carrots
1/2 teaspoon paprika
1 teaspoon minced parsley
1 teaspoon lemon juice
1 teaspoon sugar
1 tablespoon chicken fat
1/2 teaspoon salt

For this recipe, the large old carrots are better than the young ones. Frozen carrots also work well (especially frozen baby carrots). Drain the cooked carrots. While they are still hot, add remaining ingredients. Stir constantly over as low heat as possible for 5 minutes, until each piece of carrot is coated with sauce. This serves 4.

Winter Squash
These are the large, richly flavored varieties, of which Hubbard is the most widely used. Cut into 2 inch squares, remove seeds and string. Place the squares, unpeeled, on a greased baking sheet. Put 1/2 teaspoon of chicken fat on each square, sprinkle with salt and pepper to taste, and bake at 350 degrees F about 1 hour, or until tender. Allow 1 square for each portion.

Passover Stuffing for Chicken
5 unleavened breads
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
approx. 1 cup soup stock
4 tablespoons chicken fat
2 eggs 
4 tablespoons grated celery root or onion
1 teaspoon salt (this is too much if boullion is used for stock)

Break up the unleavened breads and dampen in the soup stock. Let the mixture rest for 15 minutes. Beat the eggs and mix with remaining ingredients. Add this mixture to the unleavened breads and mix well. Place in oiled roasting pans and bake covered in 350 degrees F oven until done. (Length of cooking depends on quantity). Be careful not to have the stuffing too thin or the time too long so as to cause it to become dry.
Figure one unleavened bread per person.

Passover Sponge Cake
2 eggs,
Separated juice and grated rind from one lemon 
1 1/3 cups sugar
6 tablespoons water
3/4 cup unleavened bread cake meal
pinch salt
3/4 cup potato starch

Beat egg yolks and water. Add sugar gradually and beat until very stiff. Add lemon juice and rind. Sift unleavened bread cake meal, salt and potato starch together and add gradually to egg yolks while beating very smooth. Beat egg white until stiff. Fold into batter gently and thoroughly. Turn into 10 inch tube pan. Bake in 325 degree oven for 1 hour and 10 minutes. Invert pan and let thoroughly cool before removing cake from pan.

Kosher cake mixes may be used or already baked kosher sponge cakes may be purchased.
A one pound box of cake meal has enough for about 4 1/2 cakes.
A 12 ounce box of potato starch has enough for about 2 2/3 cakes.

Suggestions for Cake Topping
A. 1 cup raspberry jam per cake. Warm the jam and spoon over each piece.
B. Danish junket or dessert mix (comes in packages something like gelatin).
C. Canned fruit (thicken the juice with potato starch).
D. Fresh fruit such as strawberries with sugar.
E. Cut-up dried fruit simmered and thickened with potato starch.

Additional Passover Recipes

Passover Onion Rolls
1 tablespoon chicken fat
1 small onion
1/2 cup oil
1 cup water
1 cup unleavened bread meal
1 1/2 teaspoon salt
4 large eggs

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grease cookie sheet and fill small bowl with cold water. Heat chicken fat in small skillet and saute onions until golden brown. Set aside. Bring oil and water to boil in 2-quart saucepan. Remove from heat and add unleavened bread meal and salt all at once. Mix well with wooden spoon. Place in work bowl of food processor. Add 2 eggs and pulse until well mixed.

Remove to mixing bowl. Shape into 2-inch rolls and place about 2 inches apart on cookie sheet, dipping your hands in water to avoid sticking. Bake 50 to 60 minutes or until golden brown. Cool for several minutes before removing from cookie sheet. Can be split and used for sandwiches.
Makes 12 servings.

Stewed Tomato Pudding
1 1/2 cups unleavened bread farfel
1/3 cup melted margarine
3 1/2 cups canned chopped tomatoes
1 cup sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp ground ginger
1/2 tsp salt
dash of pepper

Preheat oven to 350. Grease 1 1/2 quart baking dish. Place farfel and melted margarine in baking dish and toss lightly with fork. In separate bowl or in food processor, beat tomatoes, sugar, cinnamon, ginger, salt and pepper until smooth. Transfer to saucepan and bring to boil. Remove from heat and pour over farfel. Bake uncovered for about 45 minutes. Makes 6 servings.

Passover Stuffing
1/2 cup blanched slivered almonds
1 cup chopped onions
1/2 cup chopped celery
1/2 cup finely grated carrots
1/4 cup margarine or vegetable oil
1 cup grated potatoes
1/2 cup chicken broth
1 cup unleavened bread meal
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
3/4 tsp thyme
1/4 tsp sage 1/4 tsp salt
pinch black pepper
1 egg, lightly beaten
1/3 cup currants

Spread almonds in a single layer in shallow pan. Place in cold oven; toast at 350, 5-10 minutes, stirring occasionally, until lightly toasted. Remove from pan to cool. Saute onions, celery and carrots in margarine in a medium skillet over medium heat until softened 5-10 minutes.

Remove from heat; stir in potatoes and chicken broth. Meanwhile, combine unleavened bread meal with seasonings and stir into vegetable mixture along with the egg, currants and almonds.

Makes enough stuffing for one 4 1/2 pound chicken, or four Cornish game hens. Reheat any leftover stuffing in a separate, covered dish. Do not stuff birds until just before roasting.

Note: To roast Cornish game hens: preheat oven to 450, place the stuffed birds, uncovered into the oven and immediately reduce heat to 350. Baste breasts frequently, cooking for about 45 minutes or until juices run clear when thigh is pierced with fork. To roast chicken: preheat oven to 450, place stuffed and trussed bird in oven, reduce heat at once to 350, cook about 20 minutes per pound or until juices run clear when thigh is pierced with fork. Makes 4 servings.

Honey Mandelbrot
3 eggs, separated
1/4 cup margarine, softened
1 cup unleavened bread cake meal
1/2 cup honey, heated, divided
1 tsp grated orange peel
3/4 cup whole almonds

Separate eggs, beat yolks until light; beat in margarine until blended. Stir in cake meal, 1/4 cup honey and peel. Beat egg whites until stiff but not dry. Slowly pour remaining honey in a thin stream into egg whites while beating.

Fold egg white mixture into yolk mixture until blended. Stir in almonds. Pour half of batter into each of two 3 x 4 x 2 1/2-inch loaf pans. Bake at 350 for 30 to 35 minutes or until wooden pick inserted in center comes out clean.

Remove loaves from pans; cut into 1/2-inch slices. Place cut-side up on greased baking sheet. Return to oven and bake at 250 for 25 to 30 minutes for until lightly browned.

Cool completely and serve or store in airtight container. Makes about 32 cookies.

Since honey is able to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, Honey Mandelbrot may require crisping after a few days of storage. Bake at 250 about 20 minutes, cool and serve.

Sephardic Kharoset
1/2 pound pitted dates
Orange juice or wine
1/2 pound golden or dark raisins
1/2 cup finely chopped walnuts or almonds
2 apples, peeled, cored and grated

Grind dates and raisins with meat grinder. Add apples. Moisten with orange juice. Add nuts. Cover and store in refrigerator. Makes about 3 1/2 cups, or 8 servings.

Stuffed Veal Breast
8 to 10 pounds veal breast, or slightly more 2 pounds chopped veal
1 to 2 onions, chopped
2 eggs, beaten
4-6 tablespoons unleavened bread meal
salt, pepper
Minced garlic
1 onion, sliced
1 cup water

Have butcher cut pocket in veal breast. In large mixing bowl, combine chopped veal, chopped onion, eggs and unleavened bread meal. Season to taste with salt, pepper and garlic. Stuff mixture into veal pocket and close with skewers. Place onion slices on bottom of roasting pan. Place veal on top, placing additional garlic on top of veal or in pocket. Add water, cover and bake at 350 for 2 1/2 to 3 hours. Add more water, if needed. Uncover during last 15 minutes to brown meat. Test to check tenderness.

For sauce, combine pan-liquid and onion slices in blender and blend until smooth. Turn into saucepan and reheat. Carve veal on serving board and serve with onion gravy.
Makes 10 to 12 servings.

Carrot Ring
3 tablespoons potato starch
1/2 cup sweet red wine
1/4 cup margarine
1/2 cup unleavened bread meal
1 pound carrots, peeled and grated
1/4 cup raisins
1/2 cup sugar
1 egg, beaten
Juice and grated zest of 1 lemon
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon salt

In small bowl, blend potato starch evenly with wine. Cream margarine and unleavened bread meal in large bowl. Add carrots, rains, sugar, egg, lemon juice and zest, cinnamon, ginger and salt and mix well. Pour into well-greased 3-cup ring mold or casserole. Bake at 350 for 1 hour. Unmold to serve.
Makes 10 servings.

Passover Apple-Plum Pudding
2 cups unleavened bread farfel
2 cups boiling water
6 eggs, beaten
1 cup golden raisins
6 medium-sized tart apples, peeled, cored and coarsely grated
1 cup plum jam
1 1/4 cups sugar, scant
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon salt Oil
Juice and grated zest of 1 lemon
1/4 cup sweet wine
1/4 cup honey

In large bowl, mix unleavened bread farfel and boiling water. Cool. Stir in eggs. In another bowl, combine apples and raisins. Fold farfel mixture into fruit. Add jam, sugar, cinnamon and salt. Cover bottom of 3-quart glass baking dish with small amount of oil. Place in 350 degree oven 3 minutes. Add farfel-fruit mixture and bake 25 minutes.

Combine lemon juice and zest, wine and honey. Bring to boil. Pour over pudding and bake 25 minutes longer, or until golden brown on top. Makes 12 servings.

Chocolate Mouse Cake
1 (10-ounce) can macaroons
1/4 cup sweet wine
8 ounces semisweet chocolate
3 egg yolks
3 tablespoons sugar
4 egg whites
3 tablespoons coffee or water

Slice macaroons in half vertically and reserve any crumbs. Line bottom and sides of greased 8-inch springform pan with 24 macaroon slices. If desired, drizzle wine over macaroons. Melt chocolate in double boiler.

In large bowl combine egg yolks, sugar and coffee. Slowly blend chocolate into yolk mixture. Beat 4 eggs whites until stiff but not dry. Fold egg whites into cooled chocolate mixture. Pour into macaroon-lined pan. Refrigerate 2 or 3 hours or until set. Unmold and sprinkle macaroon crumbs on top. Makes 8 servings.

Passover Almond Cake
1 2/3 cups whole unblanched almonds
1/4 cup unleavened bread meal
1 1/2 teaspoons finely grated lemon zest
4 large eggs, separated
Fresh Strawberry Sauce or Raspberry Sauce
1 cup sugar
Sliced strawberries, whole raspberries or blackberries
Salt, or mixed berries for garnish

Grind almonds with unleavened bread meal and 1/4 cup sugar in food processor until fine. Beat egg yolks with 1/2 cup sugar at high speed until light and fluffy. Beat in lemon zest just until blended. Whip egg whites with dash salt until soft peaks form. Gradually beat in remaining 1/4 cup sugar, beating until stiff and shiny.

Alternately fold whites and almond mixture into yolk mixture, each in 3 batches. Transfer to greased 9-inch springform pan. Bake at 350 degrees about 35 minutes or until wood pick inserted in center of cake comes out dry. Cool slightly, then run metal spatula gently around cake and remove sides of springform pan. Cool cake on rack. Cake will sink slightly.

To serve, cut cake into wedges and place on dessert plates. Spoon little sauce next to cake and garnish with berries. Makes 8 servings.

Fresh Strawberry Sauce
4 cups fresh strawberries
6 tablespoons sugar
2 teaspoons lemon juice or to taste

Purge strawberries with 6 tablespoons sugar in food processor or blender until smooth. Remove. Add lemon juice to taste and more sugar if needed. Makes 8 servings.

Celebrating the PASSOVER

This newly revised and completed Christian Passover Haggada incorporates the latest and most important revelations YEHOVAH God has given to His people Israel concerning the meaning and essence of the Passover Seder, with the symbolism and significance of its various portions described in detail. This Haggada or "telling of the story" of the Passover is intended to be a guideline -- and not a blueprint which must be followed exactly, down to every detail. It is intended as an "outline," and each person, family and group may revise, lengthen, or shorten it, as they will, to suit their own situation and group.


Hope of Israel Ministries -- Proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God!

Hope of Israel Ministries
P.O. Box 853
Azusa, CA 91702, U.S.A.

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