Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
The Dynasty of the Oppression
Some say the Israelites labored in Egypt during the 6th Dynasty; while others claim the dynasty of the oppression was the 19th. Still others proclaim the 18th to be the one -- or the period of the Hyksos rulers of Egypt! By turning to the Bible and examining the works of early historians, the dynasty of the oppression becomes very apparent to those who are seeking the TRUTH with an open mind!
by John D. Keyser
In the works of Flavius Josephus (1st-century A.D. Jewish historian) we read the following:
Now it happened that the Egyptians grew delicate and lazy, as to painstaking; and gave themselves up to other pleasures, and in particular to the love of gain. They also became VERY ILL AFFECTED TOWARDS THE HEBREWS, as touched with envy at their prosperity; for when they saw how the nation of the Israelites flourished, and were become eminent already in plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by their virtue and natural love of labour, they thought their increase was to their own detriment; and having, in length of time, forgotten the benefits they had received from Joseph, PARTICULARLY THE CROWN BEING NOW COME INTO ANOTHER FAMILY, they became very abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many ways of afflicting them; FOR THEY ENJOINED THEM TO CUT A GREAT NUMBER OF CHANNELS [CANALS] FOR THE RIVER [NILE], AND TO BUILD WALLS FOR THEIR CITIES AND RAMPARTS, THAT THEY MIGHT RESTRAIN THE RIVER, AND HINDER ITS WATERS FROM STAGNATING, UPON ITS RUNNING OVER ITS OWN BANKS: THEY SET THEM ALSO TO BUILD PYRAMIDS, and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labour. And FOUR HUNDRED YEARS did they spend under these afflictions.... (Antiquities of the Jews, chap. IX, section 1).
Within this passage from Josephus lie several CLUES that will help us to determine the dynasty of the oppression of the Israelites.
The Change of Rulership
Josephus mentions that one of the reasons the Egyptians started to mistreat the Israelites was because “THE CROWN [HAD]...NOW COME INTO ANOTHER FAMILY.” Does Egyptian history reveal a time when the crown of Egypt passed into the hands of a totally unrelated family? Indeed it does!
In the Leningrad museum lies a papyrus of the 12th DYNASTY, composed during the reign of its FIRST KING AMENEMHET I. The papyrus is in the form of a PROPHECY attributed to the sage Nefer-rehu of the time of King Snefru; and in it an amazing prediction is made:
A king shall come from the south, called AMUNY [shortened form of the name Amenemhet], the son of a woman of Nubia, and born in Upper Egypt....He shall receive the White Crown, he shall wear the Red Crown [will become ruler over ALL Egypt]....the people of his time shall rejoice, THE SON OF SOMEONE shall make his name for ever and ever....The Asiatics shall fall before his carnage, and the Libyans shall fall before his flame....There shall be built the ‘WALL OF THE PRINCE [RULER],’ and the Asiatics shall not (again) be suffered to go down into Egypt.
Here the NON-ROYAL DESCENT of Amenemhet I. is clearly indicated, for the phrase “son of Someone” was a common way of designating a man of good, though not princely or royal, birth. According to George Rawlinson: “There is NO INDICATION OF ANY RELATIONSHIP between the kings of the twelfth and those of the eleventh dynasty; and it is a conjecture not altogether improbable, that the Amen-em-hat who was the FOUNDER OF THE TWELFTH DYNASTY was descended from THE FUNCTIONARY OF THE SAME NAME, who under Mentuhotep II. [of the previous dynasty] executed commissions of importance. At any rate, he makes NO PRETENSION TO ROYAL ORIGIN, and the probability would seem to be that he attained the throne NOT THROUGH ANY CLAIM OF RIGHT, but by his own personal merits. (History of Ancient Egypt. Dodd, Mead & Co., N.Y. 1882, pp.146-147).
“His own personal merits” probably included conspiracy: “We have to suppose that at a given moment he CONSPIRED AGAINST HIS ROYAL MASTER [last king of the 11th Dynasty], and perhaps after some years of confusion mounted the throne IN HIS PLACE. A recent discovery lends colour to this hypothesis. A Dyn. XVIII inscription extracted from the third pylon at Karnak names after Nebhepetre and Sankhkare a ‘GOD’S FATHER’ SENWOSRE who from his title can only have been the NON-ROYAL PARENT of Ammenemes I [Greek form of Amenemhet].” (Egypt of the Pharaohs, by Sir Alan Gardiner. Oxford University Press, England. 1961, p.125).
The inscriptions on the monuments make it clear that his elevation to the throne of Egypt was no peaceful hereditary succession, but a STRUGGLE for the crown and scepter that continued for some time. He fought his way to the throne, and was accepted as king only because he triumphed over his rivals. After the fight was ended and the towns of Egypt subdued, the new pharaoh began to extend the borders of Egypt.
The fact that the 12th Dynasty was a “maverick” dynasty -- one that did not conform to the royal blood line of the pharaohs -- was well known in the 18th Dynasty. According to information provided by the family pedigrees in several tombs of the 18th Dynasty, and by texts engraved or painted on certain objects of a sepulchral nature, the ANCESTOR of the royal family of this dynasty was worshiped in the person of the old Pharaoh MENTUHOTEP OF THE 11th DYNASTY, the 57th king of the great Table of Abydos. The royal family of the 18th Dynasty considered the dynasty of Amenemhet I. to be an aberration!
According to Henry Brugsch: “The transmission of the PURE BLOOD of Mentuhotep to the king Amosis (Aahmes) of the EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY was made by the hereditary princess Aahmes-Nofertari (‘the beautiful consort of Aahmes’), who married the said king, and whose issue was regarded as the LEGITIMATE RACE of the Pharaohs of the house of Mentuhotep.” (A History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs. Second edition. John Murray, London. 1881, p. 314).
Thus, with the ascension of Amenemhet I. of the 12th Dynasty, the crown had “NOW COME INTO ANOTHER FAMILY.”
The Taming of the Nile!
Josephus’ description of the type of labor the Israelites were forced to endure under the new pharaoh is REMARKABLY SIMILAR to the observations of DIODORUS SICULUS, the first-century B.C. Greek historian:
Moeris...dug a lake of remarkable usefulness, though at a cost of INCREDIBLE TOIL. Its circumference, they say, is 3,600 stades, its depth at most points fifty fathoms. Who, then, on estimating the greatness of the construction, would not reasonably ask HOW MANY TENS OF THOUSANDS OF MEN MUST HAVE BEEN EMPLOYED [?], AND HOW MANY YEARS THEY TOOK TO FINISH THEIR WORK? No one can adequately commend the king’s design, which brings such usefulness and advantage to all the dwellers in Egypt.
Since the Nile kept NO DEFINITE BOUNDS in its rising, and the fruitfulness of the country depended upon the river’s regularity, THE KING DUG THE LAKE TO ACCOMMODATE THE SUPERFLUOUS WATER, SO THAT THE RIVER SHOULD NEITHER, WITH ITS STRONG CURRENT, FLOOD THE LAND UNSEASONABLY AND FORM SWAMPS AND FENS, nor, by rising less than was advantageous, damage the crops by lack of water. BETWEEN THE RIVER AND THE LAKE HE CONSTRUCTED A CANAL 80 STADES IN LENGTH AND 300 FEET IN BREADTH. Through this canal, at times he admitted the water of the river, at other times he excluded it, thus providing the farmers with water at fitting times by opening the inlet and again closing it scientifically and at great expense. — The Pyramids of Egypt, by I.E.S. Edwards. Viking Press, London. 1986, pp. 234-235.
These engineering marvels are noted by author J.P. Lepre: “Amenemhat III is also credited with the mighty engineering feat of constructing the irrigation canal now known as the Bahr Yusif, and of using this canal to REGULATE THE FLOW OF WATER FROM THE NILE to Lake Fayum during the flood season. This water was held there by sluices, and later let out again, at will, back to the section of the Nile from Assyout down to the Mediterranean Sea, REGULATING THE HEIGHT OF THE RIVER in that area during the dry season. This irrigation system was the PROTOTYPE for the modern High Aswan Dam.”
Although Amenemhat III was involved in several great engineering works, the Bahr Yusif endeavor is of special note. For here, two 20-mile long dykes -- one straight and the other semicircular -- were constructed so as to aid in the ADJUSTMENT OF THE WATER LEVEL through the use of sluices, and to reclaim 20,000 acres of farmland by enriching the soil." (The Egyptian Pyramids. McFarland & Company, Inc. Jefferson, N.C. 1990, pp. 217-218).
Obviously, both Josephus and Diodorus Siculus are talking about THE SAME construction project carried out during the reign of AMENEMHET III. OF THE 12TH DYNASTY!
The Strong City of Ramesses
If we go now to the book of Exodus in the Bible, we can uncover some more clues to help us pinpoint the dynasty of the oppression:
And there rose up another king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph....And he set over them [the Israelites] taskmasters, who should afflict them in their works; and THEY BUILT STRONG CITIES FOR PHARAO, BOTH PITHO [PITHOM], AND RAMESSES, AND ON, WHICH IS HELIOPOLIS....And the Egyptians tyrannised over the children of Israel by force. And they embittered their life by hard labours, IN THE CLAY AND IN BRICK-MAKING, and all the works in the plains, according to all the works, wherein they caused them to serve with violence. -- Exodus 1:8, 11, 13. Septuagint.
If we can determine when the cities of Ramesses, Pithom and On were built, we can place the Israelite slaves in the right dynasty!
Because one of these cities was named “Ramesses,” many scholars believe it was named after Ramesses the Great of the 19th Dynasty, and was therefore constructed during this time -- but is this true? Notice the following:
LONG BEFORE RAMESSES THE GREAT WAS BORN, THERE WERE SEVERAL KINGS, NOT KNOWN BY MODERN HISTORIANS, WITH SOME FORM OF THE NAME RAMESSES. The record of these kings of the delta, foolishly rejected by ALL historians today, is the KEY to this enigma in the Bible. The names are preserved by Syncellus in the Book of Sothis. A list of them may be found in Waddell’s Manetho, page 235...Among these rulers is a Ramesses WHO LIVED IN THE DAYS OF JOSEPH and the fourth dynasty. Many historians have been puzzled by the fact that the name of Ramesses should appear on so many of the building blocks that went into the early buildings of the THIRD AND FOURTH DYNASTIES. Their mistaken explanation is that the later Ramesses had his servants take the time out to carve his name on ALL these stones. It NEVER OCCURRED TO THEM that there might actually have been a Rameses who assisted in the erection of these fabulous monuments of a by-gone era. -- Compendium of World History, by Herman L. Hoeh. Vol.I. Ambassador College, Pasadena, CA. 1963, pp. 94-95.
There is another reason why the Israelites cannot have built the city of Ramesses during the reign of Ramesses the Great. The earliest reference to Israel outside of the Bible is on the famous MERNEPTAH STELE. Merneptah was the successor of Ramesses II (“the Great”). Notice what Hans Goedicke, chairman of the department of Near Eastern Studies at John Hopkins University, has to say:
Merneptah’s famous stele records his military achievements to the fifth year of his reign. By that time, ISRAEL HAD SUCH SIGNIFICANCE AS A PEOPLE that it is listed among these achievements: “ Israel’s seed is not,” Pharaoh Merneptah boasted, with obvious exaggeration. The people of Israel was plainly a POLITICAL PROBLEM for Merneptah. This could hardly have been the case if the people who became Israel had SO RECENTLY become a “people” after the Exodus. Are we to believe that within 75 years at most, the Exodus group became A POLITICAL AND MILITARY POWER of the magnitude reflected in the Merneptah stele, especially after a 40-year desert sojourn? -- BAR, September/October 1981.
The answer is, obviously, NO!
In 1966, an Austrian archaeological team, headed by Dr. Manfred Bietak, began long-term excavations four miles north of the delta town of Faqus -- at a site called Tell el-Dab’a. Bietak was aware that this site had an earlier name, Tell el-Birka -- “the mound of the LAKE.” Old maps revealed that this lake was at one time joined to the old Pelusiac branch of the Nile by an artificial waterway that anciently encircled the whole area. When aerial photography revealed the ancient bed of the Pelusaic branch of the Nile, Bietak was convinced he had found the SITE OF RAMESSES.
During the 1979-80 excavation season, Bietak realized that the city had been built DURING THE 12TH DYNASTY BY AMENEMHET I. -- WITH ADDITIONS AND/OR REBUILDING BY SENWOSRET III. OF THE SAME DYNASTY!
Some FIVE HUNDRED YEARS BEFORE THE TIME OF RAMESSES II. this had been a CAREFULLY LAID OUT CITY of some importance during the time of Egypt’s MIDDLE KINGDOM, a century or so PRIOR to Egypt’s takeover by the Hyksos. Readily discernible were the foundations of an imposing 450-foot-long palace, with a huge court lined by columns, that had probably served as a ROYAL SUMMER RESIDENCE....Records show that order [in Egypt] was re-established by STRONG GOVERNMENT on the part of the kings of Egypt’s MIDDLE KINGDOM, and IT IS TO THESE THAT CAN BE ATTRIBUTED THE COLUMNED PALACE west of the Tell el-Dab’a mound, as well as a variety of OTHER BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS that seem to have surrounded the Birka lake. One of these, a TEMPLE OF THE EGYPTIAN KING AMENEMHET I., was found to contain a tablet specifically referring to the ‘TEMPLE OF AMENEMHET in [at] the water of the town’ -- independent corroboration of the town’s abundance of water....
But what is also quite obvious from Dr. Bietak’s findings is that not only was this site the TRUE BIBLICAL RAMESSES, it quite evidently had a history MUCH EARLIER than the time of Ramesses II. as well, and was in fact none other than the HYKSOS CAPITAL, AVARIS, referred to in Manetho’s History. -- The Exodus Enigma, by Ian Wilson. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. 1985, pp. 48, 49 & 52.
The City of the Sun!
Let’s look at another city mentioned in the Septuagint version of the Bible -- On, or Heliopolis. Although the city of On wasn’t originally settled during the Middle Kingdom, it was, however, REBUILT ON A MASSIVE SCALE by a pharaoh of the 12th DYNASTY! We read about this in Henry Brugsch-Bey’s book, A History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs:
...a remarkable document on parchment, which I had the good fortune to acquire at Thebes in 1858, and which for some years past has been in the possession of the Berlin collection of Egyptian antiquities, make the fact certain, that USURTASEN I. [of the 12th Dynasty], at the very beginning of his reign, occupied himself with BUILDINGS AT THE TEMPLE OF THE CITY OF THE SUN [ON, HELIOPOLIS]. This important material informs us how, in the third year of his reign, he assembled round his throne the first officials of his court, to hear their opinion and their counsel as to his intention of RAISING WORTHY BUILDINGS TO THE SUN-GOD. As usual in such assemblies, the king begins his address with a solemn reference to his divine descent....From this he proceeds to a discourse on the importance of the buildings and monuments dedicated to the deities, starting from the idea that such alone are able to immortalize the memory of a ruler. After the address, the assembled counsellors UNANIMOUSLY APPROVE the good intentions of their lord, and encourage him to carry out the same without delay. THE PHARAOH IMMEDIATELY GIVES HIS COMMAND TO THE PROPER COURT OFFICIAL, ENJOINS HIM TO WATCH OVER THE UNINTERRUPTED PROGRESS OF THE WORK WHICH HAS BEEN DETERMINED UPON, and then begins the solemn ceremony of LAYING THE FOUNDATION-STONE by the king himself. -- Pp.151-152.
The result of this ceremony was a work that can still be seen today! Not far from Cairo, in the neighborhood of the village of Matarich, a huge obelisk made out of the hardest and most beautiful rose granite points skyward, commemorating the work of the Israelites as they slaved under this pharaoh to re-build the “City of the Sun.”
Usurtasen erected a massive BRICK-BUILT double wall around the main temple at Heliopolis, which also surrounded the area of present-day Tell Hisn. The area this wall enclosed has been estimated to measure some 1,100 by 475 meters, or 1,203.4 by 519.7 yards! (Atlas of Ancient Egypt, by Baines and Malek, p. 173).
It is incredible to realize that two obelisks from this city were transported from Egypt and erected on the Thames Embankment in London and in Central Park, New York respectively, the chief cities of the peoples descended from the two sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim -- the very peoples descended from the slaves who built the city of On! It is as though YEHOVAH God Himself directed the removal of these obelisks AS A REMINDER to the descendants of Israel of their national origins!
The city of PITHOM is an enigma! In 1883, Edouard Naville of Switzerland claimed to have uncovered this city at the site of Tell-el-Maskhutah in the Wadi Tumilat; however, recent excavations at this site by University of Toronto Egyptologist John S. Holladay have completely overturned the work of Naville. Apparently Tell-el-Maskhutah went unoccupied from the Middle Bronze Age until the Saite and Early Persian periods of Egyptian history. In other words, it was unoccupied throughout the entire period in which the exodus of the Israelites could conceivably have occurred. The city of Pithom still waits to be uncovered in the “land of Sukot” -- east of Egypt!
Bricks of Mud
In Exodus 1:13-14, we read: “And the Egyptians tyrannised over the children of Israel by force. And they embittered their life by hard labours, IN THE CLAY AND IN BRICK-MAKING, and all the works in the plains....” (Septuagint version).
This is reiterated in Exodus 5:5-8:
And Pharaoh said, “Look, the people of the land are many now, and you [Moses and Aaron] make them rest from their labor!” So the same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their officers, saying, “You shall no longer give the people straw TO MAKE BRICK as before. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. And you shall lay on them the QUOTA OF BRICKS which they made before. You shall not diminish it. For they are idle; therefore they cry out, saying, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God.’” (NKJV).
We can only conclude from these verses that the main thrust of the Israelites’ work in Egypt was MAKING BRICKS. We find no mention of cutting or quarrying stone, or preparing any other type of material.
What, then, did the Hebrew slaves build with all these bricks? Notice Josephus again: “...they [the Egyptians] became very abusive to the Israelites...for they enjoined them...to build walls for their cities...THEY SET THEM ALSO TO BUILD PYRAMIDS, and by all this wore them out....” Not only did the Israelites build walls around the cities they constructed, but they were also forced to raise up great FRONTIER BARRIERS:
Amenemhet (I.) ruled Egypt with a STRONG HAND, reestablishing law and order throughout the realm. Under him, the nation underwent a revitalization of prosperity, and GREAT BUILDING PROJECTS were again resumed....He...established new landmarks and boundaries and expelled the Asiatics from Egypt, BUILDING A GREAT BARRIER across the Wady Tumilat to keep them out. No trace of this wall exists, though, as it was probably BUILT OF MUD-BRICK. Accounts of this wall indicate a project on the scale of the FRONTIER WALL OF BRITAIN, built by the Roman emperor Hadrian. -- The Egyptian Pyramids, p.198.
This very wall that the Israelite slaves built for Amenemhet I. was used to keep them contained within the confines of Egypt!
As well as this eastern barrier constructed in Egypt during the 12th Dynasty, a SOUTHERN BOUNDARY fortification was erected in the Sudan during the reign of Amenemhet III. Record of this was discovered on a stele which states that one building alone in this barrier required the laying of 35,300 mud-bricks!
The majority of the bricks the Hebrews made would have gone into the HUGE PYRAMIDS the pharaohs liked to construct for themselves and their families. These pyramid complexes took the best part of a monarch’s reign to complete, and would have taken up most of the Israelites’ labor.
Why am I belaboring this point about the bricks used to build walls and pyramids? Because this is a VITAL KEY to determining the dynasty of the oppression! The Encyclopedia Britannica explains:
The usual construction of pyramids is a mass of masonry composed of horizontal layers of rough-hewn BLOCKS, with a small amount of mortar; and this mass in the LATER FORMS became more and more rubbly, until IN THE VIth DYNASTY it was merely a system of retaining walls of rough stones and mud, filled up with loose chips, and IN THE XII DYNASTY THE BULK WAS OF MUD BRICKS. -- Vol. 18, 1943 edition. Article “Pyramid,” p. 792.
If you consult J.P. Lepre’s book The Egyptian Pyramids, you will find confirmation of this fact. Prior to the 12th Dynasty and up to the fourth king of this dynasty (Senusert II.) ALL THE PYRAMIDS WERE CONSTRUCTED OF LIMESTONE with casings of granite or polished limestone. Starting with Senusert II. and continuing with the remaining pharaohs of the 12th Dynasty, ALL of the pyramids were built with a BRICK CORE! No wonder the Israelites were so busy making bricks!
“In its superstructure also, the pyramid of Sesostris II [Senusert II] DIFFERED in many respects from its predecessors. To a height of 40 feet from the ground, the INNER CORE consisted of a knoll of rock; above that, in place of rock, there was a framework of retaining walls with the intervening spaces FILLED WITH MUD-BRICKS. This core was cased in the normal manner with blocks of fine limestone....” (The Pyramids of Egypt, p. 225).
The sixth king of this dynasty -- Amenemhat III. -- was one of the MIGHTIEST pharaohs ever to rule Egypt. He built TWO PYRAMIDS, the famous “Labyrinth,” the LARGEST of all Egyptian temples, and, of course, the lake and canal systems to control the Nile, that Diodorus described.
The first pyramid of Amenemhet, along with that of Sesostris II, lie to the north and south of the pyramid of Amenemhet II, and follow “the example set by Sesostris II, both in the EMPLOYMENT OF BRICK for the inner core of the superstructure and in the elaboration of the substructure into a kind of maze of chambers and corridors” (ibid, p. 226). Also, Amenemhet’s pyramid “lay within an INNER BRICK ENCLOSURE wall designed with alternate projections and recesses like the stone enclosure wall of Sesostris II’s pyramid” (ibid, pp. 233-234).
Of Amenemhat III’s second pyramid, at Hawara, the author [J.P. Lepre] made the following observations in March of 1987: “Now a shapeless heap ominously rising from the flat, desert terrain. COMPRISED OF SMALL, MUD BRICKS (approximately 12" long by 8" wide by 4" high).” -- The Egyptian Pyramids, pp. 214-215.
Not only was the pyramid of Amenemhet III. built of brick, but the residences of the priests on the north side of the causeway to the pyramid were also constructed of this material!
The Inevitable Conclusion
When you put all of these factors together -- the testimonies of Josephus and Diodorus, the non-royal background of Amenemhat I., the archaeological discoveries of Dr. Manfred Bietak, the proclamation of Usurtasen I. and the construction of the pyramids themselves -- the only logical conclusion you can arrive at is that the DYNASTY OF THE OPPRESSION WAS THE 12th!
The 6th Dynasty must be ruled out as being too early; and the time of the Hyksos as untenable. The 18th and 19th Dynasties were much too late -- because they were CONTEMPORARY with the kingdom of Israel! The 12th Dynasty fits ALL the requirements; and when this is realized, the events of the time fall into place and make sense. Unfortunately, modern historians stumble along in the DARK, forcing events into time-frames that are not meant to receive them, and coming up with hypotheses that border on the ridiculous! Truly, the wisdom of this world is foolishness to YEHOVAH God.
The Egyptian empire of the 12th Dynasty appeared to the world of that time as the CENTER of civilization, and of all progress in the areas of intellectual, artistic and commercial activity. “There was a flourishing of art in Egypt, in styles completely different from the traditional and due...to this ‘particular people’ who had entered Egypt. There is the appearance of a NON-TRADITIONAL literature delighting in saga-like stories featuring the exploits of heroes in foreign lands which, flourishing later in Ancient Greece, brought immortality to Homer and flourished yet again in the Dark Ages. There is the appearance of NON-TRADITIONAL sculptures which are far more imaginative and of greater artistic quality, revealing a deeper insight into the spiritural aspect of humanity. This development -- which was short-lived in Egypt -- again is found to flourish later amongst the Ancient Greeks. In architecture, there was a SUDDEN flourishing of non-traditional designs -- such as the fluted columns which were later brought to fruition in the glorious architecture of Ancient Greece.” (Wake Up! May 1980, p. 10).
Art, in the different spheres of its activity, reached a height and perfection never again to be attained in Egypt; and the inscriptions cut into the stone memorials and tomb walls were of the finest in symmetry and precision.
It is clear to see that UNIQUE arts and skills developed in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom, and are attributed to a non-Egyptian people who had entered the land. These same arts and skills surfaced amongst the Ancient Greeks, the Etruscans, the Scythians and finally the Celts and the Anglo-Saxons.
We do not have to stretch our imaginations very far to realize that the Israelites, cradled in the great center of civilization, would apply themselves to the arts and skills practiced in Egypt and would create that which was unique to them.
The brilliance of this dynasty was then, without a doubt, the DIRECT RESULT of the brilliance of the Hebrew slaves toiling in the harsh Egyptian sun to construct the edifices and memorials and canals that so amazed the rest of the world. This, in itself, is a direct PROOF of the Israelite presence in the land of Kemi during this stage of the nation’s development.
Hope of Israel Ministries -- Proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God!
Hope of Israel Ministries
|Scan with your