Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
What Happened to the Ancient Canaanites? Where Are They Today?
The American Indians are definitely NOT descended from the Mongoloid peoples of Asia -- as modern anthropologists would have you believe. The Indians of North, Central and South America are descended from CANAANITE STOCK and arrived in the New World by different routes -- some across the Atlantic Ocean, others across the icy wastes of Siberia. The Canaanites have been a thorn in the side of Israel in all her wanderings. When Joshua entered the Promised Land of Palestine the Canaanites met them there; and when the Israelites entered the Promised Land of America the Canaanites were, once again, there to meet them!
by John D. Keyser
When Joshua the son of Nun entered the Promised Land at the head of the children of Israel, he set about implementing the commands of YEHOVAH God regarding the Canaanites in the land:
"When the LORD your God brings you to the land that you are about to enter and possess, and He DISLODGES many nations before you -- the HITTITES, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, seven nations much larger than you -- and the LORD your God delivers them to you and you defeat them, you must doom them to destruction: grant them no terms and give them no quarter....this is what you shall do to them: you shall tear down their altars, smash their pillars, cut down their SACRED POSTS, and consign their images to the fire....
"You shall destroy all the peoples that the LORD your God delivers to you, showing them no pity....The LORD your God will DISLODGE those peoples before you little by little; you will not be able to put an end to them at once, else the wild beasts would multiply to your hurt. The LORD your God will deliver them up to you, throwing them into utter panic until they are wiped out. He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you shall obliterate their name from under the heavens..." (Deuteronomy 7: 1-2, 5, 16, 22-24. Tanakh).
When Joshua and the Israelites crossed the Jordan river just north of the Dead Sea, they camped awhile at Gilgal, then moved to take Jericho and Ai. Afterward, they returned to Gilgal (Joshua 1-8). After making peace with Gibeon, Joshua led the Israelites through the Valley of Aijalon and defeated the five Amorite kings (Joshua 9-10). From Makkedah, Joshua launched a SOUTHERN campaign against Lachish, Hebron, Debir and Gaza.
Those of the inhabitants who were not put to the sword by the Israelites, FLED TO EGYPT and sought refuge there. Samuel Purchas, in his book Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages, records this flight: "Procopius...affirms, that all the seacoast, in those times, from Sidon to Egypt, was called Phoenicia: and that when Joshua invaded them, they [those that weren't killed] LEFT THEIR COUNTRY, and FLED INTO EGYPT..." (1613. Book I, chapter XVIII, p. 85).
After a victorious campaign, Joshua and the Israelites returned to Gilgal for a period of time before launching any more campaigns against the Canaanites. The Canaanites who had fled the country, however, pushed further into Africa: "...there [in Egypt] multiplying, [the Canaanites] pierced further into Africa; where they POSSESSED ALL THAT TRACT, UNTO THE PILLARS OF HERCULES, speaking half Phoenician" (ibid., same page).
Close to the Pillars of Hercules, on the African side, the vanquished Canaanite refugees built two cities: "They [the Canaanites] built THE CITY OF TINGE AND TANGER IN NUMIDIA, where were two pillars of white stone, placed near to a great fountain, in which, in the Phoenician tongue, was engraven: WE ARE CANAANITES, WHOM JOSHUA THE THIEF CHASED AWAY" (ibid., same page).
In The Complete Works of Josephus, translated by Wm. Whiston, is a footnote on page 110 that corroborates Purchas' record --
"Moses Chorenensis sets down the FAMOUS INSCRIPTION AT TANGIER [TANGER] concerning the old CANAANITES driven out of Palestine by Joshua thus: 'We are those exiles that were governors of the Canaanites, but have been driven away by Joshua the robber, AND ARE COME TO INHABIT HERE'" (Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids. 1988).
In time these inhabitants of Northern Africa became known as Berbers and Moors.
From Numidia the Canaanites soon made it across the Straits of Gibraltar and reached as far north as Scandinavia and the British Isles. In these countries (and Europe in general) they have left evidence of their existence over large areas of land, and are known to the anthropologists as the "Beaker People."
The Northward Thrust
After a respite at Gilgal, Joshua and the Israelites thrust NORTHWARD as far as Hazor, meeting the Canaanite hosts by the waters of Merom. Here they utterly defeated the combined forces of the Amorites, HITTITES, Perizzites, Jebusites and Hivites.
The land of the HITTITES, at the time of the conquest, extended north of Palestine through Syria to the Euphrates river -- see Judges 1:26. Following their defeat at the hands of Joshua the Hittites, along with others of the Canaanites, fled northward through Syria into ANATOLIA. Notes Herman L. Hoeh of Ambassador College:
"So famous were these people, so different from other races, that they gave their name to all the lands where they migrated. As late as the Chaldean Empire of Nebuchadnezzar the name HATTI, or CHATTI, was applied to Syria-Palestine and to part of eastern Asia Minor. In Egyptian monuments the true Hittite peoples were depicted with PROMINENT NOSES, straight or hawked, 'somewhat broad, with LIPS FULL, the CHECK-BONES HIGH, the eyebrows fairly prominent, the FOREHEAD RECEDING like the CHIN, and THE FACE HAIRLESS.' 'The hair is BLACK, the EYES DARK BROWN.' (The Races of the Old Testament, by A. H. Sayce, page 133) The SKIN COLOR varied from BROWN to YELLOWISH and REDDISH. Greek tradition insists the people were a WARLIKE, RUDE PEOPLE, KNOWN FOR THEIR FRENZIED DANCES AND MUSIC" (Compendium of World History, Vol. 1. Ambassador College, 1963, pp. 359-360).
While some of the refugees from the invasion of Joshua and the Israelites stayed in Asia Minor and became part of the great Hittite Empire, a number of them crossed over into EUROPE and traveled to the area of modern SCANDINAVIA and Britain. The evidence of this migration was left in an unusual way!
The supreme god of the Canaanites was the WEATHER-GOD. Archaeologists have uncovered representations of this deity, MOUNTED ON BULLS, at sites all across the map of Europe! "Archaeological sites that have yielded representations of DEITIES MOUNTED ON BULLS leave a 'MIGRATORY TRAIL' of dots across the map [of Europe]. The route runs from the SYRO-HITTITE AREA, ALONG THE DANUBE, TO THE LOWER RHINE AND THE BRITISH ISLES" (The Hittites: People of a Thousand Gods, by Johannes Lehmann. The Viking Press, N.Y. 1977, p. 269).
Theodor Bossert, a leading Hittitologist, included a map showing all the sites that have yielded this deity (STANDING OR SITTING ON A BULL) in his book Altanotolien. The map clearly shows that the sites RUN A STRAIGHT LINE from SYRIA to BOGAZKOY [in Anatolia] and FROM THERE ALONG THE DANUBE TO THE RHINE, with an offshoot veering left to Italy. This god mounted on a bull is the HITTITE WEATHER-GOD. A particularly fine example from the Roman period, portrays him complete with all his attributes (e.g. thunderbolts and DOUBLE-AXE) and riding a BULL, was found at HEDDERNHEIM, now part of FRANKFURT-AM-MAIN, early in the present century.
What, then, did this "weather-god" mounted on a BULL represent?
Amihai Mazar provides the answer: "In the Canaanite religion, the bull was the accompanying animal and SYMBOL OF BAAL, the storm god; in several Canaanite and later Syrian artistic depictions the storm god is seen standing on the back of a bull (Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, p. 351).
Cult places where Baal was worshipped in the form of a bull have been uncovered in various parts of Palestine. Notes Mazar --
"On a high ridge in the northern Samarian Hills, in the heart of the Israelite settlement region, an open cult place has been found which is perhaps one of the few examples known of the biblical "high places" built "on every high hill and under every spreading tree" (I Kings 14:23). On the ridge's summit a CIRCLE OF LARGE STONES was laid, some 20m in diameter; the empty center of the circle was perhaps reserved for a sacred tree.
"On the circle's eastern side, a large stone was found standing on its narrow long side. Due to this stone's position in front of a paved area on which several offerings were found, it seems to have served as a MASSEBAH, a "STANDING STONE." A unique find here was a 0.18-m-long bronze statuette of a BULL, which apparently was a major object of worship at this site; it is reminiscent of the golden calf described in the Bible in connection with the Exodus tradition and with the temples erected by Jeroboam I at Bethel and at Dan" (ibid., pp.350-351).
Bronze statuettes of bulls are to be found throughout Canaanite culture -- particularly at Hazor and Ugarit.
In the Historie af Danmark by Suhm, published in 1775, the arrival of the Canaanites in Scandinavia is recorded: "Messenius...says that CANAANITES, which were DRIVEN OUT BY JOSHUA, came to Scondia which they called henceforth SCANDINAVIA. This is supposed to have happened 844 YEARS AFTER THE FLOOD...And Arngrim Jonae, the learned Icelander, insists that THE CANAANITES, DRIVEN OUT BY JOSHUA, WERE THE FIRST INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH..." (page 101).
By the time Gathelus and his followers (see our article The Stone That Roared: The Incredible Story of Lia-Fail) reached Germany in the decades immediately following the Exodus, they found the Canaanites already in residence there:
"They [Gathelus, Scota and their followers] went at last till they reached GERMANY; they make a halt in it.
"It is there that there came a troop of the soldiers of the PICT-FOLK [a name the Canaanites were called by other nations], on account of the fame and glory of that sea expedition of Golamh [Gathelus]; they having had knowledge of one another FROM THE TIME HE WAS IN THRACIA with his people. Each of them welcomed the other, and they joined their treaty and friendship on each side. When they were agreed together, the PICTS [Canaanites] complained to them of the narrowness of THEIR LAND AND TERRITORY IN THRACIA AND IN PICT-LAND.
"Golamh [Gathelus] with his brethren, and his CHILDREN promised that they would give help and military alliance with them, to contend for ANOTHER TERRITORY and fair heritage; and that they would be united against their enemies as though they were brethren; until that they [Gathelus and his people] should get rest and should desist from the sea-journeyings and wanderings on which they were, and that they should reach their native land. The PICTS [Canaanites] were satisfied with that, and took farewell of Golamh [Gathelus] thereafter. It is from that treaty and friendship which the PICTS joined with Golamh that, long afterwards, the GAEDAL perforce cleared for them THE LAND WHERE THE PICTS [CANAANITES] ARE, as Golamh [Gathelus] foretold at that time" (Leabhar Gabhala: The Book of Conquests of Ireland, The Recension of Micheal O'Cleirigh. Part I. Edited by MacAlister & MacNeill. Hodges, Friggis & Co., Ltd. Dublin. 1916, p. 233).
Years later HEREMON, the son of Gathelus, would fulfill this promise.
Hu the Mighty
Shortly after the fleeing Canaanites became ensconsed in north-west Europe, another great migration took place that was to once again uproot the vanquished descendants of Canaan! In the Welsh TRIADS (traditional chronicles) we find mentioned a mysterious man by the name of HU THE MIGHTY, who led a group of settlers from the Middle East to the isles of Britain.
E. Raymond Capt tells the story:
"...HU GARDARN HYSCION (ISAACSON?) or 'HU THE MIGHTY,' led a party of settlers FROM ASIA MINOR TO BRITAIN. A DESCENDANT OF ABRAHAM, Hu the Mighty's coming to Britain provides one of the first recorded instances of the fulfillment of the prophecy found in Genesis 28:14; that the 'seed' of Abraham would spread abroad, to the four points of the compass.
"The Welsh TRIADS, or 'traditional chronicles,' give evidence of HU THE MIGHTY COMING FROM ASIA MINOR. In the Welsh Triad 4, we read that: 'The FIRST of the THREE CHIEFTAINS who established the colony was Hu the Mighty, who CAME WITH THE ORIGINAL SETTLERS. They came over the Hazy Sea from the summer country, which is called DEFROBANI, that is where Constinoblys now stands'" (Stonehenge and Druidism. Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, Ca. 1979, p. 75).
Who was this Hu Gardarn -- "Hu the Mighty," a descendant of Abraham? Herman L. Hoeh reveals the answer --
"When and how did the Children of Israel migrate to WESTERN EUROPE? The answer is found in Cymbric or WELSH HISTORY.
"A fragmentary Welsh record, called the WELSH TRIAD, reads as follows: 'FIRST was the race of the CYMRY, who came with HU GADARN to Ynys Prydain.' Hu came from 'the LAND OF SUMMER' -- a land located somewhere in what later constituted the realm of Constantinople (the capital of the eastern Roman Empire). HE JOURNEYED TO YNYS PRIDAIN -- the Welsh name of the ISLE OF BRITAIN. This FIRST MAJOR SETTLEMENT preceded the migration in 1149 [B.C.] of BRUTUS of Troy to Britain.
"WHO WAS HU GADARN? Gadarn is a Welsh word. It means the 'MIGHTY.' Hu was a short form of the old Celtic name HESUS (Origines Celticae, by Edwin Guest, vol. 2, p. 9). HESUS is the Celtic -- and also the Spanish -- pronunciation of JESUS. Was there a famous 'JESUS' who lived in the balmy summerland of the EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN centuries BEFORE the time of Jesus the Christ? Most certainly! It is found in Hebrew 4:8, 'For if JESUS (that is, JOSHUA) has given them rest, then would he not afterward have spoken of another day.'
"Jesus was merely the GREEK FORM of the Hebrew name JOSHUA. Hu or Hesus the Mighty was JOSHUA THE MIGHTY, the great general who led Israel into Palestine. AND THE WELSH TRIAD RECORDS THAT IN HIS LATER YEARS HE ALSO SETTLED ISRAEL PEACEABLY IN THE BRITISH ISLES. From there, for trading purposes, they spread to the coasts of the Continent which were subject to the GERMAN CYMRY -- the DESCENDANTS OF THE GERMAN KING CIMBRUS (1679-1635)" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II. Ambassador College, Pasadena, Ca. 1963, pp. 48-49).
Settling Israelites in Britain was not the only concern of Hu the Mighty or Joshua. To the end of his life he was faithful to the commands of YEHOVAH God regarding the people of Canaan. It is recorded that in the THIRD YEAR of Romus, son of Testa and king of Spain, a man by the name of "Liber Pater" or Bacchus (Iacchus) conquered SPAIN and brought it under his sway. "He was from the EAST. His title belonged to HESUS THE MIGHTY of Celtic tradition. HESUS WAS JOSHUA (Jesus in Greek). HE PURSUED THE CANAANITES AND DROVE THEM OUT OF WESTERN EUROPE" (ibid., pp. 122-123).
So WHERE did the Canaanites go?
The Dark-Skinned Lapps
Extending across the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of the old Soviet Union is a region known as LAPLAND -- most of which lies within the Arctic Circle. The people inhabiting this area are known as LAPPS, a third of whom are NOMADIC, living during the winter in the interior and during the summer on the coast. Other Lapps live permanently in scattered settlements on the coast and the numerous fjords, while many are established in villages at the heads of valleys or on well-stocked lakes. The majority of the Lapps live in NORWAY, where they are called FINNS.
According to Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia (Volume 15) "the principal occupation of the Lapps is HERDING REINDEER, from which both food and clothing are derived; other occupations are hunting and fishing" (page 55).
The lifestyle of the LAPPS in the sixth century A.D. is mentioned by Procopius, a Byzantine historian who lived circa. 500-565. His observations are discussed by Gwyn Jones in A History of the Vikings:
"Procopius is eloquent on the subject of the midnight sun, but his most striking information relates to the SCRITHIFINOI, Jordane's SCREREFENNAE, THE LAPPS whose way of life was LIKE TO THAT OF BEASTS. They were a HUNTING PEOPLE who drank no wine and raised no crops. They had NO GARMENTS OF CLOTH and nothing he recognized as SHOES; their body's covering derived like its sustenance FROM THE ANIMALS THEY HUNTED AND SLEW, whose skins THEY FASTENED TOGETHER WITH SINEWS.
"Even their children were nursed differently from the rest of mankind. They knew nothing of the milk of women nor ever touched their mother's breast, but were nourished on marrow from the bones of beasts. As soon as a woman had given birth she THRUST THE CHILD INTO A SKIN which she afterwards hung from a tree. Then having put marrow in the child's mouth she went off with her husband a-hunting" (Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1984, pp. 26-27).
Other characteristics and habits of the LAPPS are mentioned in The Indian Tipi: Its History, Construction, and Use, by Reginald and Gladys Laubin --
"In fact, within historic times, we find people living in CONICAL SKIN TENTS all around the Arctic Circle -- THE LAPPS IN EUROPE, the Americanoid Yukaghir in Siberia, INDIANS throughout the entire Mackenzie Area of Canada, among the Caribou Eskimo west of Hudson Bay, and in Labrador. In ALL these tents we have the INSIDE CENTRAL FIRE, THE SMOKE HOLE centering around the crossing of the poles at the top, the EASTERN ENTRANCE, the PLACE OF HONOR within opposite the door, just AS IN THE TIPIS OF THE PLAINS INDIANS [of North America]" (Ballantine Walden Edition, pp. 1-2).
Further along, on page 222, these same authors mention a visit to SWEDEN and an astounding similarity they discovered there:
"On a recent visit to SWEDEN, we went to the National Museum in Stockholm, where a comprehensive exhibition of LAPP LIFE was displayed. The LAPPS live in CONICAL TENTS, supported by poles, SIMILAR TO A TIPI, BUT RATHER MORE LIKE A WIGWAM, having no smoke flaps and being much smaller than a tipi. Their pole are dragged by reindeer. These poles were DRILLED WITH SMALL HOLES NEAR THE BUTTS AND LACED TO A WIDER LEATHER STRAP ATTACHED TO THE CINCH AND THE PACK SADDLE. The poles were fastened side by side, one above the other, the small ends dragging on the ground. Old Coyote, a CROW INDIAN who was with us, declared that his grandfather told him that THAT WAS EXACTLY HOW HIS PEOPLE USED TO DRAG THEIR POLES" (ibid).
Who were these rude people who were nomadic in nature and lived in American Indian style tipis or wigwams in the northern limits of Scandinavia? According to S. Gusten Olson "the Icelander Arngrim Jonas (Jonsson Arngrimr) believed that the LAPPS were to be reckoned among the DESCENDANTS OF THE CANAANITES (Sven Bring, Svea Rikes Historia, p. 45)"
When Joshua invaded Scandinavia "the LAPPS [or the CANAANITES] and the (northern) Finns...[FELL] BACK TO THE EXTREME NORTH OF THE COUNTRY, leaving behind them archaeological vestiges and traces in the geological names of the country. They [THE LAPPS] were the SWEDISH INDIANS, receding before the advance of a POWERFUL CONQUERING RACE [Joshua and the ISRAELITES]" (With the World's People, by Ridpath. Vol. VII).
Notes S. Gusten Olson (The Incredible Nordic Origins):
"In Skandinaviska Nordens Ur-Invanare [by Sven Nilsson] one can read of researching to learn the origin of a culture which was FOREIGN to the Scandinavian countries. Nilsson mentions 'archaeological relics in the earth and the contemporary traditions among the people. The former, because of their beautiful shapes and above all their strange, drawn figures, POINT TO THE ORIENT -- PHOENICIA AND EGYPT; the latter point just as clearly to an old CANAANITE-PHOENICIAN SUN WORSHIP. I have followed these traces as carefully as I have been able'" (Nordica S.F. Ltd., Kent, England, p. 14).
Clearly, the present-day Lapps are the descendants of the Canaanites (known to Greek and Roman writers as PIKI and PEUKINI respectively) whom Joshua and the Israelites expelled from Western Europe and Scandinavia.
The Flight to Ireland
The northern limits of Scandinavia was not the only area the fleeing Canaanites migrated to. Bede, in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, records where else the Canaanites traveled to: "It happened that the nation of the PICTS coming into the ocean from Scythia, as is reported, in a few LONG SHIPS, the winds driving them about beyond all the borders of Britain, ARRIVED IN IRELAND, and put into the northern coasts thereof, and finding the nation of the SCOTS there, requested to be allowed to settle among them..." (Book 1, chapter 1).
Seumas MacManus also tells the story of the arrival of the Canaanites in Ireland --
"It was in his reign [Heremon, son of Gathelus], continues the legend, that the CRUITNIGH or PICTS ARRIVED FROM THE CONTINENT. They landed in the southwest, at the mouth of the river Slaney (Inver Slaigne). A tribe of Britons who fought with poisoned arrows were at the time ravaging that corner of the Island. The PICTS helped to drive out the marauders, and in reward were GRANTED A SETTLEMENT THERE, from Crimthann, the chief of that quarter. Afterwards they had an outfall with Crimthann -- and it was decided that they should be PASSED INTO ALBA (SCOTLAND)" (The Story of the Irish Race, pp. 11-12).
Heremon, King of Ireland from 1433-1418 B.C., remembered the promise his father Gathelus made to the Canaanites when he passed through Germany with his people many years earlier.
Bede, the English historian and theologian (673-735), recalls how Heremon kept his father's charge:
"That after the Britons, coming over from Armorica, as it was reported, being at the south, had made themselves masters of the greatest part of the island, it happened that the NATION OF THE PICTS, coming into the ocean from Scythia [Scandinavia], arrived first in IRELAND, whence, BY THE ADVICE OF THE IRISH [Heremon and his people], they sailed over into Britain, and began to inhabit THE NORTHERN PARTS [SCOTLAND] thereof, for the Britons were possessed of the southern" (Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum).
Due to their friendship, Heremon gave the Canaanite chiefs wives of his own people: "The three PICTISH CHIEFS were given IRISH WIVES to take to Alba with them, on condition that henceforth their ROYAL LINE should descend according to the FEMALE SUCCESSION -- which, it is said, was henceforth the LAW among the Alban PICTS" (The Story of the Irish Race, p. 12).
The wives that Heremon gave the Canaanite PICTS were widows of his brothers who perished in the invasion of Ireland.
In the Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots we read of the arrival of the Canaanites in Ireland after their long journey from the East --
"General Vallancey [states] that a 'colony recorded in the Irish history are said to be the CRUITI, or CRUITNI, or PEACTI': 'As a Chllathamhnas Eiremoin tangadur Cruitnith no Peacti, sluagh do thriall on Tracia go Eirinn'...[i.e. IN THE REIGN OF EREMON, THE CRUITI, OR CRUITNI, OR PEACTI, MIGRATED FROM THRACE TO IRELAND.] Herodotus, he says, places the PACTYAE and CRITHOTI in THRACIA CHERNOSESUS. 'These PEACTI or PACTYAE,' he adds, 'are not the PICTI, or woad-painted Britons, (the Welsh,) described by Caesar. They are distinguished by the Scots by the name of PEACTI, a word that sounds exactly as PACTYAE.' (Collectonea de rebus Hibernicis, IV. xvii. xix.) So, according to this, THE PICTS OF IRELAND ARE THE PACTYAE OF THRACE" (by Joseph Ritson. Vol. II. W.& D. Laing, Edinburgh. 1828. Footnote p. 97).
Earlier, on page 80, Ritson quotes Pinkerton as saying: "IN THEIR ORIGINAL SEATS ON THE EUXINE [BLACK SEA], Greek and Roman writers call them PIKI and PEUKINI; being the real names of PIHTS and PEUHTS mollified, and rendered more distinct (I. 367). The PEUKINI, from every ground of cool probability, were the very first BASTERNAE who passed over [the Bosporus], and proceeded NORTHWEST, till they emerged under the name of PICTI, the PIHTAR, or PEOHTAR, or PIHTAR of the Saxon Chronicle, PEHITI of Witichind, and PEHTS of ancient Scottish poets." (Dissertation, p. 176).
The Land of Thrace
At this juncture we should digress a little and locate the area known as "THRACE." This will help us to understand the migrations of the Canaanites who fled from Joshua and the Israelites and, at a later time, were led from Thrace to Scandinavia under the leadership of a royal scion of the House of Judah.
"Thrace," notes the Encyclopedia Britannica, "[is] a name applied at various periods to areas of different extent....The boundaries of the ROMAN PROVINCE OF THRACE were -- north, the Haemus; east, THE EUXINE SEA [BLACK SEA]; south, the Propontis, the HELLESPONT and the Aegean; and west, the Nestus. The distinguishing features of the country were the chain of Rhodope (Despotodagh) and THE RIVER HEBRUS (Maritza)." "The HEBRUS," continues the Britannica, "with its tributaries, drains almost the whole of THRACE" (1943 edition. Vol. 22, p. 159).
Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia defines the boundaries of Thrace in much the same manner, adding that "the THRACIANS were a barbaric, warlike people who established their own kingdom in the 5th century B.C." (Vol. 23, p. 140). Also, the Thracian tribes tattooed themselves, thus being distinguished from the Celtic tribes.
The Man called Odin
As time elapsed the region of Scandinavia (and particularly the peninsula of Denmark) became a chief area of trade and commerce. It was strategically located to dominate both the North and Baltic sea trade. So, together with the original German tribes of the CYMRY and DAUCIONES were migrants from Britain -- the HEBREW CYMRY transplanted by Hu the Mighty or Joshua. "In 1040 [B.C.]" relates Herman L. Hoeh, "the HEBREW CYMRY called for a DESCENDANT OF JUDAH, A ROYAL SCION OF THE HOUSE OF TROY, to rule over them." "ODIN," continues Hoeh, "answered the call and led a migration OUT OF THRACE into DENMARK and neighboring regions" (Compendium of World History. Vol. II. Ambassador College, 1963, p. 50).
Also known as WODEN, WOTAN and DAN, Odin is the foremost hero of Norse mythology and, as such, was worshipped by the pagan forebears of the Anglo-Saxons, the Scandinavians, the Germans and THE CANAANITES in their midst! As the chief god of the northern pantheon, he is said to have been the father of several legendary kings. "His exploits and adventures," notes the Encyclopedia Britannica, "are a common theme in the poetic and prose Eddas. Here his character is distinguished rather by wisdom than martial prowess, and reference is frequently made to his skill in poetry and magic" (Vol. 16, 1943 edition, p. 704).
Human sacrifices were frequently offered to ODIN, especially prisoners taken in battle; and the worship of ODIN seems to have prevailed chiefly, if not solely, in military circles. He was known to the Anglo-Saxons as WODEN, and to the Germans as WODAN (WUOTAN).
Writes Herman L. Hoeh: "In Danish history he is also called DAN I. He was the FIRST ODIN or VOTAN -- from the Hebrew ADONAI meaning 'lord.' Denmark originally received its name from the TRIBE OF DANAAN. It passed to the king who took the name of the subjects whom he ruled" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II, p. 43).
The magazine Wake Up!, in its August 1980 issue, explains that "whilst such deification of ancestors can only be deplored, there is firm reason to assert that ODIN WAS A MIGHTY LEADER OF THE ISRAEL PEOPLE during their westward trek from ancient Scythia [which included Thrace] -- the region to the north of the BLACK AND CASPIAN SEAS -- towards the fringe countries of the North Sea" (Covenant Publishing Co., Ltd. London, p. 18).
King DAN I, or ODIN, commenced his reign in Scandinavia in the year 1040 B.C. and his line, the sagas reveal, stretch all the way back to TROY! "The repeated assertions and implications," notes The Link magazine, "that the families descended from ODIN (or WODEN) derive from the ANCIENT TROJAN KINGS (often thought to belong to the fanciful category) may indeed prove to have FIRM FOUNDATION IN TRUTH."
"Several factors," continues this publication, "provide evidence which is harmonious with such a claim. Ancient classical and extra-Biblical sources indicate that the TROJAN KINGS were of the ROYAL LINE OF JUDAH and that they were closely related to other ROYAL FAMILIES IN IONA, GREECE AND CRETE. The early British king-line is traditionally DESCENDED THROUGH THE TROJAN KINGS, and the kings of Ireland are stated to have sprung from the MILESIAN ROYAL FAMILY in IONA into which 'Pharaoh's daughter' married."
"Accepting these sources," notes the magazine, "the royal families of the NORTHERN NATIONS OF EUROPE -- Irish-Scottish, Early British, Frankish, Norwegian -- are all of the SCEPTRE TRIBE OF JUDAH and the many intermarriages of these royal lines would thus all be within the one great royal family of which so much is prophesied in Scripture. Queen Elizabeth II has stated that she is WODEN-BORN" (Dec. 1981. Christian Israel Foundation, Walsall, England, p. 117).
The genealogy of Odin is traced by Gladys Taylor when she states that "the royal families of England [and] Wales...sprang from BRUTUS THE TROJAN, while those of the SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES came from ODIN, whose genealogy," she confirms, "as given in the Prologue to the Prose Edda, is traced TO PRIAM KING OF TROY..." (The Magnet of the Isles. The Covenant Book Co., Ltd. London, 1971, p. 37).
From Priam Herman L. Hoeh traces Odin's lineage all the way back to Jacob! (See Compendium of World History, Vol. II. p. 48).
With ODIN when he migrated from Thrace to the area of Scandinavia was a MIXED THRONG of people -- including the Pactyae or Picts who, as we have seen, were descendants of the CANAANITES Joshua drove out of the Promised Land. Julius Firmicus, an early writer, recorded that "in Ethiopia all are born black; in Germany, white; and IN THRACE, RED." At the time of Odin's great migration Thrace was populated by the children of Tiras, son of Japheth, as well as various of the Canaanite tribes who had fled from Canaan as the Children of Israel invaded the land.
Elucidates Herman L. Hoeh:
"It was FROM THRACE that ODIN led THE AGATHYRSI and OTHER TRIBES to northwestern Europe when he founded the Danish kingdom.
"Many of the warriors employed by the early princes of western Europe were FIERCE, OF SWARTHY SKIN, NAKED AND OFTEN TATTOOED AND PAINTED. Strabo, the Roman geographer, wrote that AREAS OF IRELAND AND BRITAIN were inhabited "by MEN ENTIRELY WILD." Jerome, writing in one of his letters in the fifth century, characterizes some of them as CANNIBALS" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II. p. 86).
Journey to the New World
Shortly after arriving in Scandinavia, ODIN embarked on a venture that was to take him, along with his followers, thousands of miles across the ocean to a mystical land shrouded in legend. The record of this voyage is found in The Popul Vuh -- the Quiche Mayan book of creation. Originally written in MAYAN hieroglyphs, it was transcribed in the Spanish alphabet in the sixteenth century. This book is considered the most important text in the native languages of the Americas, and begins with the deeds of MAYAN gods in the darkness of a primeval sea and ends with the radiant splendor of the MAYAN LORDS who founded the QUICHE KINGDOM in the GUATEMALAN HIGHLANDS.
Who were these MAYAN LORDS who founded the Quiche kingdom? Where did they come from?
In The Popul Vuh are recorded the migrations and wanderings of their ancestors. Notes Herman L. Hoeh: "It traces their origin EASTWARD ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN to the OLD WORLD. Other Indians had similar origins of having to cross A GREAT BODY OF WATER FROM THE NORTHEAST to reach their present land" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II. p. 88).
The author of The Popul Vuh records it this way: "They also multiplied there IN THE EAST....All lived together, they existed in GREAT NUMBERS and walked there in the EAST....There they were then, in great numbers, the black man and the white man, many of many classes, men of many tongues....The speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood nor stone, and they REMEMBERED THE WORD OF THE CREATOR AND THE MAKER..." (English version by Goetz and Morley, pp. 171-172).
The MAYA record continues:
"...THEY CAME FROM THE EAST...they left there, from that great distance....THEY CROSSED THE SEA" (pp. 181, 183). Time past and the descendants of the original migrants sought to establish their kingdom and authority over the people: "And then they remembered what had been said about THE EAST. This is when they remembered the instructions of their fathers. The ancient things received from their fathers were not lost. The tribes gave them their wives, becoming their fathers-in-law as they took wives. And there were THREE OF THEM who said, as they were about to go away: 'We are GOING TO THE EAST, WHERE OUR FATHERS CAME FROM,' they said, then they followed their road...
"There were only THREE [who went across the sea], but they had skill and knowledge....They advised all their brothers, elder and younger, who were left behind. They were glad to go: 'We're not dying. We're coming back,' they said when they went, yet it was these same three who WENT CLEAR ACROSS THE SEA. And then they ARRIVED IN THE EAST; THEY WENT THERE TO RECEIVE LORDSHIP" (Translated by Dennis Tedlock. A Touchstone Book, published by Simon & Schuster. N.Y. 1986, p. 203).
Briefly summarized, the Popul Vuh and other Mesoamerican traditions relate that humans were created in the EAST and lived there in darkness. The ancestors of the Maya left the East "crossing the SEA in A FLEET OF SEVEN VESSELS carrying 'many companies,' and SAILED ALONG THE GULF OF MEXICO COAST to its farthest westward point, at PANUCO, where the people debarked" (Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Contacts, by Stephen C. Jett). They were evidently led to TULA by priests -- "bookmen" who carried their symbols of rank and their gods with them.
Shortly thereafter the leaders left, either for home or to continue their quest. Those voyagers who remained in the region settled near the highest maintains they could find and married into the local population -- to whom they taught the arts of civilization. "When their leaders returned, the settlers would not accompany them homeward. SONS OF THE PRIEST-KINGS RETURNED TO THE EAST, where they received from the KING OF THE EAST the insignia and symbols of ROYALTY, including the canopy and throne. They then RETURNED TO RULE THE TRIBES" (ibid.,).
In most versions, these culture-bearer ancestors came to TULA. The Aztec and the Maya both seem to have inherited the legend from the TOLTECS -- who, in turn, evidently adopted it from Teotihuacanos. One version, however, places the arrival of these ancestors in the OLMEC period.
Where did these Quiche Maya journey to? From what line of great kings in the EAST did they receive their royal authority? To the successors of the GREAT RULER who conducted their ancestors to the USUMACINTA RIVER IN MEXICO circa 1000 B.C.! And WHO was this "great ruler"?
In The Two Babylons, compiled by Alexander Hislop, the author tells us that "from the researches of Humboldt we find that THE MEXICANS CELEBRATED WODAN AS THE FOUNDER OF THEIR RACE, just as our own ancestors did. The WODAN or ODIN OF SCANDINAVIA can be proved to be the [same as]...the WODAN OF MEXICO..." Continues Hislop: "...the fact that that name had been borne by some illustrious hero among the supposed ANCESTORS OF THE MEXICAN RACE, is put BEYOND ALL DOUBT by the singular circumstance that THE MEXICANS HAD ONE OF THEIR DAYS CALLED WODANSDAY, exactly as we ourselves have" (Loizeaux Brothers, N.J. 1959, pp. 133-134).
Is it mere coincidence that the MAYAS claim that their kingdom was founded by a great EASTERN RULER NAMED ODEN OR VOTAN OR DAN by some of their tribes? According to legend he was a WHITE MAN who CAME BY SEA FROM THE EAST and settled them in their new land. When did this occur? TEN CENTURIES BEFORE THE TIME OF THE MESSIAH, notes the historian Ordonez!
Comments Herman L. Hoeh --
"This VOTAN -- who was also worshipped as a god -- was famous for having himself journeyed to a land where a great TEMPLE was being built.
"Do we have a king in Europe, living at the time SOLOMON'S TEMPLE was being built (around 1000 B.C.), who had dominion OVER THE SEAS, who was worshipped as a God, and whose name sounded like Votan? Indeed -- WODEN or ODIN, KING OF DENMARK from 1040-999 [B.C.]. He was worshipped later as a great god. Scandinavian literature is replete with accounts of his DISTANT JOURNEYS which took him away from his homeland for many months, sometimes years" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II. p. 91).
In the Native Races of the Pacific States, by Hubert H. Bancroft, we find that ODIN gave his name to the "FOREST OF DAN" in the land of the QUICHE INDIANS -- just as KING ODIN or DANUS gave his name to DENMARK (DANMARK) (pp. 163 & 549 -- Vol. V). Also, "DAN...founded a monarchy on the GUATEMALAN PLATEAU" (Vol. I, p. 789). Odin's capital in Mesoamerica -- built for the Canaanites he brought from the east -- was called AMAG-DAN.
So here we have the records of a DANISH KING sailing across the ocean to Mesoamerica and planting COLONIES OF RED MEN FROM EUROPE in the YUCATAN and GUATEMALAN HIGHLANDS -- as early as 1000 years before the Messiah! It is a FACT that Mesoamerican traditions universally assign WHITE LEADERS to every major recorded historic migration of the AMERICAN INDIAN from northwestern Europe.
In The Annals of the Cakchiquels -- Lords of Totonicapan we find a direct reference to the RACIAL ORIGINS of the kings and nobles who led and governed the Canaanites in the New World.
"These, then, were the THREE NATIONS OF THE QUICHES [MAYANS -- the Cauecs, the Greathouses and the Lord Quiches], and they came from where the sun rises, DESCENDANTS OF ISRAEL, of the same language and the same customs....When they arrived at the edge of the [Red] sea, BALAM-QITZE [a native title for one in a religious office] touched it with his staff and at once A PATH OPENED, which then closed up again, for thus the great God wished it to be done, BECAUSE THEY WERE SONS OF ABRAHAM AND JACOB. So it was that those THREE NATIONS [the "mixed multitude" of Exodus 12:38] passed through, and with them THIRTEEN OTHERS CALLED VULKAMAG [the 13 tribes of Israel -- including Levi]....We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us, who came from the other part of the sea, WHO CAME FROM CIVAN-TULAN, BORDERING BABYLONIA" (Translated by Delia Goetz. University of Oklahoma Press, 1953, p. 170).
On page 169 of the same translation we read: "...came from the other part of the ocean, FROM WHERE THE SUN RISES."
In the Mesoamerican dialects the mysterious CIVAN-TULAN in the above passage means "A PLACE OF CAVES OR RAVINES." Could this be the region of PETRA where Moses led the Israelites? Petra is famous for its caves, and deep ravines. Herman Hoeh notes that "CANAANITE HIVITES, mixed with Egyptian stock, dwelt at Petra, or Mt. Seir, at the time of the Exodus (Genesis 36:2, 20, 24). They lived at peace with the Hebrews."
The area of Petra was, at that time, DOMINATED BY MIDIAN. A high priest who visited the land of Midian and MOAB in Moses' day was called BALAAM -- almost the EXACT-SAME SPELLING as the title BALAM used by the priests of the QUICHE-MAYA!
In Stephen's Incidents of Travel in Central America, the author quotes what Fuentes (chronicler of the ancient kingdom of Guatemala and of the Toltecan Indians) said of the origin of the leaders of the Quiche. Fuentes said that, according to the grandson of the last king of the Quiches, the TOLTECS WERE ISRAELITES, released by Moses from the tyranny of Pharaoh. After crossing the Red Sea they became idolators. To escape the reproofs of Moses, they strayed away and, under the leadership of a man named Tanub, drifted from continent to continent until they came to a place they called the seven caverns -- a part of the kingdom of Mexico. Here they founded the city of TULA. The story recounts that from Tanub, their leader, sprang the ruling families of the Tula and the Quiche Maya.
It is obvious, then, that the people LED BY ODIN across the Atlantic to Mesoamerica were NOT exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes were called CHIVIM, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the very Hebrew spelling used for the English word HIVITES, some of whom once LIVED IN MT. SEIR -- the LAND OF CAVES NEAR BABYLONIA!
The Mysterious "Olmec"
When ODIN led the people across the Atlantic to the New World, a mysterious culture was already in full bloom in Mesoamerica. Called the OLMEC, The Facts On File Dictionary of Archaeology states that they were "a Mesoamerican group whose heartland lay in the low-lying swampy areas of the southern Veracruz and Tabasco provinces of Mexico. Since their CULTURAL ZENITH occurred in the MIDDLE PRE-CLASSIC [1000-300 B.C.], they are often proposed as the earliest civilization in Mesoamerica" (edited by Ruth D. Whitehouse. N.Y. 1983, p. 363).
This publication goes on to say that "the OLMEC were apparently GREAT TRADERS, but they are particularly noted for the variety and high quality of their art, especially their ceramic and jade figurines. Massive basalt heads depicting thick-lipped men in tightly fitted helmets have been found at all the major centres. They are also noted for a distinctive black, white-rimmed kaolin pottery....it is clear that the OLMEC were controllers of a widespread trade network."
Charles Gallenkamp adds the following information:
"Olmec culture is known mainly from THREE important ruins: LA VENTA, TRES ZAPOTES, and SAN LORENSO....their influence was extremely widespread. Unmistakably OLMEC TRAITS are found in archaeological sites EXTENDING FROM THE VALLEY OF MEXICO TO EL SALVADOR, and some authorities view the OLMEC as a kind of "MOTHER CULTURE" that played a vital role in stimulating the RISE OF CIVILIZATION throughout the area" (Maya: The Riddle and Rediscovery of a Lost Civilization. Third edition. Viking Penguin, Inc. N.Y. 1985, pp. 67-68).
The existence of the OLMEC culture in Mexico and Central America, along with terraced pyramids (similar to SUMERIAN ZIGGURATS), calendrical systems, mathematics and sculptured figures WITH BEARDS or Negroid features implies, to many observers, "a CONNECTION with such peoples as the...PHOENICIANS, HITTITES... or CARTHAGINIANS" -- all of whom were CANAANITES! (ibid., p. 44).
Who was this mysterious people that have so baffled the modern-day historians and anthropologists? To find the answer to this riddle we must go back, once again, to the OLD World!
In the year 1883 B.C. an invasion of Spain took place from the confines of North Africa. Having become a civilized land and weathy due to changes in climate and the presence of many producing gold mines, Spain aroused the greed of Egypt and other North African nations. A king by the name of GERION or DEABUS, with a large army and many ships, conquered Spain and forced the inhabitants to dig gold for their new African overlords. Mnay Spanish slaves died from overwork under this tyranny.
Records Herman L. Hoeh --
"The history of this period is as follows:
Gerion, the Giant
"Gerion was the seventh generation from HAM. He descended through Cush, Saba (the Saba of Gen. 10:7), Gog, Triton, Ammon and HIARBA (compare the last name with the Biblical "ARBA" of Joshua 13:14, who was THE FATHER OF THE ANAKIM GIANTS).
"The Lomnini were three GIANT SONS of Gerion. They were allowed to continue to rule in the land [Spain] after an invasion in 1849 by an Egyptian army under Osyris Denis (Dionysius in Greek)" (Compendium of World History, vol. II, pp.113-115).
The Egyptians slew Gerion in 1849, whereupon the part of his tribe that was left fled to sea in their ships AND SAILED TO THE NEW WORLD. A tradition found among the TOLTECS of Mexico, and preserved by Ixtlilxochitl, declares that at one time there were GIANTS IN THEIR LAND.
Continues Herman Hoeh --
"Even the date of the arrival of these GIANTS has been preserved by the Toltec historian. It was 520 years after the flood. (Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, vol. v, p.209). The year of the flood was 2370-2369. And 520 years after the flood -- that is, after 2369 -- is 1849, the very year a great battle was fought in Spain during which Gerion was slain and MANY OF THE GIANTS EXPELLED. Later Indian tradition records the perishing of these giants in the New World in a struggle with the Indians" (ibid.).
Early British tradition also records the presence of SWARTHY GIANTS who built many of the MEGALITHIC monuments or henges.
The arrival of the North Africans in Ireland is recorded by Geoffrey Keating in The History of Ireland:
"Neimheadh won three battles on the FOMORIANS, namely, NAVIGATORS OF THE RACE OF HAM, WHO FARED FROM AFRICA; they came FLEEING to the islands of the WEST OF EUROPE, and to make a settlement for themselves, and (also) FLEEING THE RACE OF SHEM, for fear that they might have advantage over them, in consequence of the curse which Noah had left on HAM FROM WHOM THEY CAME; inasmuch as they thought themselves to be safe from the control of the POSTERITY OF SHEM by being at a distance from them: WHEREFORE THEY CAME TO IRELAND....It is wherefore they used to be called FOMORIANS, namely, from their being committing robbery on sea: FOMHORAIGH, i.e. along the seas" (Vol. 1. The Irish Texts Society, London. 1902, pp. 179 & 183).
Irish tradition also tells the story of "stones [that] were brought there by a King who arrived in a LARGE FLEET with a retinue of priests and AFRICANS. The Africans set up the stones, those who died in the process being buried within the circle. When THE KING DEPARTED he left behind the high priest and others, and they invited the local people to assist in their rituals: 'The priests wore robes made of SKINS AND FEATHERS OF BIRDS, that of the Chief Priest being white with a girdle made from the neck feathers of mallard drakes; the other priests wore FEATHER CLOAKS of mixed colours.'" (Megalithomania, by John Michell. Cornell University Press, N.Y. 1982, p.102.)
The Olmec civilization was that which developed from this group in the New World more than 1,000 years before Christ!
A Latter Migration!
With the fall of the Persian Empire in 331 B.C., the last remaining CANAANITES in Asia Minor disappeared from the area. Many other nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom at this time -- including the House of Israel. In the year 331-330 the Israelites, along with the remnant of Canaanites and some other races, journeyed out of this area to the northwest, eventually arriving in Scotland.
Archaeological proof of the Canaanites' later movements can be found in the skeletons unearthed in Asia minor:
"Measuring techniques have become so ACCURATE that RACIAL CHARACTERISTICS are now distinguishable with a FAIR DEGREE OF CERTAINTY. The HITTITES, too, can be studied from this aspect. In 1958 the Deutche Orientgesellschaft devoted its 71st scientific publication to some HITTITE GRAVES discovered six years earlier in the immediate vicinity of the capital, HATTUSA, below a spur of rock named Osmankayasi after the owner of the neighbouring field. Excavation of this burial-ground yielded 50 cremation burials and 22 skeletons."
Continues the author --
"Taken in conjunction with other finds made in ANATOLIA, these human remains enabled experts to distinguish THE HITTITES FROM OTHER RACES. To quote the publication mentioned above: 'If we temporarily disregard the human types portrayed in Hittite art and focus our attention on SHAPE OF SKULL ALONE, THE HITTITES can be typologically classified....During Anatolia's PRE-HITTITE PERIOD [prior to approximately 1447 B.C.], or in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages, NARROW-SKULLED TYPES are found. In the MIDDLE BRONZE AGE [after about 1447 B.C.]...
"BRACHYCEPHALIC TYPES occur in the CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION. After...the COLLAPSE OF THE CENTRAL HITTITE EMPIRE [331 B.C.]these gave way to DOLICHOCEPHALICS who were later (in Greek and, more particularly, Roman times) succeeded by the BRACHYCEPHALICS who still predominate in our own day. The likely inference is that HITTITE SETTLERS [from Canaan] INTRODUCED THESE BRACHYCEPHALIC SKULLS INTO CENTRAL ANATOLIA [in the Middle Bronze Age]'" (The Hittites: People of a Thousand Gods, pp. 83-84).
Wherever the Canaanites went as they traveled across Europe, they left BRACHYCEPHALIC skulls of their dead as markers of the route they took.
This later movements of the Canaanites were recorded by Tacitus in his book Germania. He mentions that "some tribes... appeared BETWEEN THE RHINE AND WESER during the centuries IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING OUR ERA. Called the CHATTI [a variation of HATTI, or HITTITE], they were a TOUGH AND WARLIKE PEOPLE who excelled their neighbours in the martial arts (Germania, XXIX et seq.)" (ibid., p. 80).
Their movements in Europe are also recorded under the name or title of PICT. Joseph Ritson says "that a people of AQUITAIN GAUL, upon the seacoast (now POITOU), is called by Caesar, Strabo, Pliny, and others, PICTONES. PICTAVI (now POITIERS) was their city; whence they are afterward, in the Notitia Gallica, by Gregory of Tours and others, called also PICTAVI or PICTAVIENSES..." (Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, p. 84).
Ritson goes on to mention:
"The PICTONES were a considerable nation of the Celtae [actually, they were NOT Celts at all but fellow-travelers] (to whom Caesar allots A THIRD PART OF GAUL [FRANCE]), and inhabited A LARGE DISTRICT TO THE SOUTH OF THE LIGER OR LOIRE, bordering upon the northern ocean, now THE BAY OF BISCAY. Between this people and the PICTS, if not absolutely the same, there is at least this resemblance, that BOTH appear, as is already said, to have been called PICTONES. Flaccus Alcovinus, who flourished in 780, and wrote a Latin poem, "De pontificibus et santis ecclesiae Eboracensis," (apud Historiae Britannicae scriptores, xx. a Gale, I. 705,) and makes frequent mention of the PICTS, has in one instance this line (v. 68):
"Donec PICTO FEROX timido simul agmine fugit.
(Till the FIERCE PICT fled, with a fearful herd.)
"This, therefore, is an ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE, that PICTO, a PICT, PICTONES, the PICTS, was a common name as well of the GALLIC, as of the CALEDONIAN [SCOTLAND] PICTS" (ibid., pp. 85-86.
From the Continent the Canaanites or PICTS set sail for Britain. Their route is uncovered by Ritson:
"The PICTS, before their arrival and settlement in the NORTH OF BRITAIN [SCOTLAND], seem to have established themselves in the ORCADES, or ORKNEY ISLANDS. We have this FACT on the authority of Nennius. "After an interval," he says, "of many years, (from the time, that is, of HELI THE HIGH PRIEST, when BRITO [BRUTUS] reigned in Britain, and Posthumus, his brother, over the Latins,) not less than 900 [aprox. 249 B.C.], the PICTS came and OCCUPIED THE ISLANDS WHICH ARE CALLED ORCADES; and afterwards, from the neighbouring isles, wasted many and not small regions, and OCCUPIED them in the left (i.e. north) part of BRITAIN, and remain to this day. THERE THE THIRD PART OF BRITAIN THEY HELD, and hold till now.
"An additional proof of their being settled IN THESE ISLANDS, is afforded by an epistle, or certificate, in legal form, of Thomas de Tulloch, bishop of Orkney and Zetland, to Eric, king of Denmark and Norway, in 1403; wherein he informs him, that in the time of Harold Harfager, first king of Norway, An. 900, the land or country of the ISLANDS OF ORKNEY was inhabited and cultivated by two nations; that is to say, the PETS and the PAPES (PETI et PAPAE); which two nations had been radically and entirely destroyed by the Norwegians of the race or tribe of the most strenuous prince Ronald, as well as by the name of "PICTS, or PIGHTS HOUSES," which appears to be still given to certain ancient buildings in those parts" (Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, pp. 99-100).
From the Orkneys the Picts moved on into Scotland. The 19th-century author Pinkerton "maintains the ancient Caledonians to be PICTS, or PIKS...but...at the same time, that SCOTLAND was held by the Cumri, or Cimbri, or Cimmerii, two different people; and that the CIMBRI, 'who held all Germany,' were CELTS (I. 13, 15), and 'HELD SCOTLAND TILL THE PIKS CAME AND EXPELLED THEM' (I. 16, 39); asserting, moreover, that 'THE PIKS CAME FROM NORWAY TO SCOTLAND [by way of the Orkneys]' (I. 15)."
Pinkerton goes on to say "the PIKS were really the VIK VERIAR OF NORWAY...and were...settled in that part of BRITAIN which lies NORTH OF THE CLYDE AND FORTH, LONG BEFORE THE TIME OF JULIUS [CAESAR]" (Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, pp. 74-75).
Further, he notes, "the CIMBRI held Scotland TILL THE PIKS ["FROM NORWAY"] CAME AND EXPELLED THEM; an event which happened about 200 YEARS BEFORE CHRIST. These Cimbri were driven by the PIKS down below Loch Fyn, and the Tay, and, after, beyond the firths of Forth and Clyde...."
These same PIKS (or PICTS) who took control of Scotland from the Cimri were, according to Pinkerton, "the PEUKINI...the PIKI OF ANCIENT COLCHIS [country on the east shore of the Black Sea], who inhabited the ISLE OF PEUKE, AT THE MOUTH OF THE DANUBE." Thus the Picts of Scotland are connected with Asia Minor and the Canaanites who dwelt there under the Hittite Empire.
Traits of the British Picts
As the Romans pushed northwards in Britain, they inevitably came to what is very roughly speaking the present national boundary from the Tweed to Solway, along the southern face of the Cheviots. Here they came across "ANOTHER RACE, EXTREMELY WARLIKE AND FIERCE." Notes Charles MacKinnon: "They were formidable enough to halt the Roman advance for a time, and the Romans called them CALEDONIANS, but from the start they seem to have been nicknamed PICTS" (Scottish Highlanders. Barnes & Noble Books, N.Y. 1984, p. 24).
Although most of the Picts disappeared from Scotland at a later date, a small number of them survived down to the eighteenth century. The characteristics of this remnant are recorded by Herman L. Hoeh in his Compendium of World History --
"In the eighteenth century, Martin, in his volume Western Islands of Scotland, remarked that the COMPLEXION of the natives of the isle of Skye was "for the most part BLACK;" and the nations of Jura were "generally BLACK OF COMPLEXION," and of Arran, "generally BROWN, and some of a BLACK COMPLEXION." The inhabitants of the Isle Gigay were "fair or BROWN in complexion." The AMERICAN INDIAN -- commonly called the RED MAN -- varies from COPPER-BROWN to almost BLACK, and, of course, almost white in some tribes.
"And the famous literary companions Johnson and Boswell several times took notice of the SWARTHY COLOR of some of the natives in THE NORTH AND WEST OF SCOTLAND (Croker's Boswell, 1848, pp. 309-310, 316, 352). "There was great diversity in the faces of the circle around us," wrote Boswell; "some were AS BLACK AND WILD in their appearance AS ANY AMERICAN SAVAGES whatever." "Our boatmen were rude singers, and seemed SO LIKE INDIANS, THAT A VERY LITTLE IMAGINATION WAS NECESSARY TO GIVE ONE AN IMPRESSION OF BEING UPON AN AMERICAN RIVER.
"A writer at the beginning of the nineteenth century characterized the people of Harris: "In general the natives are of SMALL STATUE....THE CHEEK BONES ARE RATHER PROMINENT. THE COMPLEXION IS OF ALL TINTS. Many individuals are as DARK as mulattoes, while others are as nearly as fair as Danes" (Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, No. VII, pp. 142, 143).
"In Pennant's Second Tour, 1772, is a line drawing of the WIGWAMS of the half-breed natives of the SCOTTISH ISLAND OF JURA. Here are natives, LIKE AMERICAN INDIANS, living in THE REMOTE ISLANDS OF EUROPE [as well as LAPLAND and SIBERIA], whose last remnants [in Scotland] died out as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century" (Vol. II. pp. 86-88).
S. Gusten Olson also admits that "in Britain, the PICTS were a STRIKING PARALLEL TO AMERICAN INDIANS" (The Incredible Nordic Origins, p. 13).
The Vanishing Picts!
"The first race to DISAPPEAR [from Scotland] were," writes Charles MacKinnon, "the PICTS, and 'DISAPPEAR' THEY DID." He goes on to say that
"according to the latest information today [as of 1984], however, nobody yet knows...what happened to them. Nor do we know what language they spoke, except that it was NOT the Gaelic of the Scoto-Irish invaders from Antrim who brought Irish civilization to Scotland....
"The mystery lies in the fact that thereafter [the time of Kenneth McAlpin -- circa 843 A.D.] THE PICTS DISAPPEARED ENTIRELY. There are theories about great battles and about treachery during which Kenneth killed all the Pictish royal family and their nobles, BUT NOBODY KNOWS EXACTLY WHY THE LANGUAGE, ORAL TRADITIONS ABOUT THEIR ORIGIN, THEIR CUSTOMS AND EVEN THEIR REAL NAME (for PICTS was a Latin nickname) VANISHED. They DID VANISH, however, and the smaller kingdom of DALRIADA gave Scotland its name, its language (Gaelic), its customs and its rulers" (Scottish Highlanders, pp. 24, 26-27).
What happened to the wild Picts? Where did they go -- or were they indeed exterminated by the invading Scots? Herman L. Hoeh poses the same question -- but also gives us a clue! "The WILD, UNSETTLED PICTS later DISAPPEARED from Scotland. Where? Historians do not know. But SCOTTISH HISTORY tells!"
The KEY to the history of Mesoamerica has been lost; and not a single historian or archaeologist seems to know the TRUE ORIGIN of American Indian civilization. Why? Because they have THROWN OUT the KEYS to that history. One of the keys, as we have seen, was found in Danish history in the person of ODIN who took the first great migration of Canaanites to the New World. The second KEY -- and probably the most important -- is to be found in the tumultuous history of rugged SCOTLAND.
The nation of the Scots was completely DRIVEN OUT OF SCOTLAND by the ROMANS in the year 376 A.D. The PICTS, and other groups, who remained in the land as allies of Rome were soon turned upon and miserably oppressed. Rebellion broke out and the Roman Legions dealt severely with the fleeing rebels. In desperation the PICTS sought, and obtained, Scottish help to drive out the Roman forces and their British allies.
Herman Hoeh tells the story --
"The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne -- who were still dwelling in Pictland along with the WILD PICTS. The Cruithne were miserably oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the SCOTS and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver them from [Roman] oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne..." (Compendium of World History. Vol. II, p. 80).
Hoeh then asks the question: "But what befell those WILD, TRIBAL PICTS who gave their name to the Cruithne -- and who PAINTED THEMSELVES? Remnants of them continued to be referred to AS LATE AS THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. Most of the population, however, DISAPPEARED IN 503 upon the coming of the Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc" (ibid., p. 83).
What indeed befell the WILD PICTS -- the people who left the many strange and fascinating monuments and artifacts in the NORTHERN ISLES OF BRITAIN?
Not only was there a MAJOR MIGRATION in 503 A.D., but there was an EARLIER one in 376 A.D. Notice --
"No continuous history of the QUICHE-MAYA civilization is extant. We have to turn to the VALLEY OF MEXICO for a DIRECT and surprising CONNECTION with the movement of events IN SCOTLAND where dwelt the PICTS and the MAIATAI (Greek for MAIA fold [this is where the word "MAYA" comes from]).
"From SCOTTISH HISTORY...it [is] established that MAJOR MIGRATIONS OCCURRED IN THE YEARS 376 -- when the Scots and allies were driven out and the PICTS miserably oppressed -- and IN 503 -- when the Scots from Ireland drove out most of the remaining WILD PICTS or PAINTED MEN. Where did these folk flee to? Can we establish a direct connection between these events in PICTLAND with the history of MIGRATION TO THE VALLEY OF MEXICO OF THE TOLTECS and others in the New World? Indeed we can" (Compendium of World History, Vol. II, pp. 94-97).
Herman Hoeh continues --
"Now compare this with the MIGRATION OF THE TOLTECS and their WHITE chieftains to Mexico. The historian of the TOLTECS was Ixtlilxochitl. He reports several MIGRATIONS over the centuries. But the one he takes special note of -- for its chronological import -- COMMENCED IN 387 (See Bancroft's Native Races of the Pacific States, Vol. 5, pp. 209, 214.) The events were these -- a REBELLION broke out that led to a protracted struggle for eight years. The rebels were finally forced to FLEE IN 384 for protection. After remaining 3 years (to 387) they continued their LENGTHY MIGRATION. It was now 11 years after the initial rebellion. Eleven years before 387 is 376 -- THE VERY YEAR THE ROMANS DROVE OUT THE SCOTS AND SUPPRESSED THE PAINTED RED MEN OF PICTLAND! Is this mere coincidence?
"THEIR MIGRATION TOOK THEM OVER WATER AND LAND TILL THEY REACHED JALISCO IN MEXICO. To do so they must have landed in the traditional area of the USUMACINTA RIVER, crossed the isthmus, and coasted to JALISCO on the southern extremity of the Gulf of California. After wandering many years they settled in TULANCINGO. "The third year of their stay in Tulancingo completed...one hundred and four years since the departure from the country," records Bancroft from Ixtlilxochitl (vol. V, p. 213). (The 104 years compose two Indian calendar cycles of 52 years each). It was now 488.
"At TULANCINGO they remained another 15 years -- to 503. In 503 THEY MIGRATED TO THE VALLEY OF MEXICO TO THE REGION OF LAKE TEXCOCO. What caused them to migrate in 503? Is this a significant date in SCOTTISH HISTORY? Indeed. THAT WAS THE YEAR THE SCOTS FROM IRELAND FINALLY SETTLED IN SCOTLAND AND DROVE THE WILD PICTISH TRIBES OUT OF THE COUNTRY.
"Strengthened by a NEW INFLUX of migrants, the TOLTECS journeyed (IN 503) to the already settled shores of the lake on which MEXICO CITY now stands. There, at TULLAN, for six years the Toltecs lived under a theocratic republic, each chief directing the movement of his band in war and directing their needs in times of peace...." (ibid.).
Modern historians have often carelessly discounted the value of these Indian records. But archaeology is now forcing a renewed respect for the history and traditions of Mesoamerica as preserved by the native writers during the earliest periods of the Spanish colonial period.
From Mesoamerica the Canaanites spread throughout the New World. Where the Canaanite HITTITES migrated to from Central America should surprise no one. Reports Herman L. Hoeh: "The ONLY people of this description -- BEARING THE NAME CHATTI, that is, HITTITES -- warlike and rude, were found scattered throughout much of NEW ENGLAND AND THE PLAINS OF NORTH AMERICA after the voyage of Columbus to the New World....The name CHATTI was the COMMON intertribal name of the great CIVILIZED INDIAN NATIONS of New England and the great plains of North America" (Compendium of World History, Vol I, p. 360).
In the great westward expansion of the 19th century these tribes were uprooted and, in a lot of cases, exterminated.
Traders and Seamen
The history of Mesoamerica reveals another group of people that have all the characteristics of the ancient Canaanites -- specifically the PHOENICIANS. Known as the PUTUN (this name has the consonants of the word PUNT or PONT, whence came PUNIC and PHOENICIAN), this group has also been identified with the ITZA -- as revealed by Charles Gallenkamp:
"J. Eric Thompson, who studied this problem [who the ITZA really were] in depth identified the ITZA as a GROUP CALLED THE PUTUN or Chontal, a Maya-speaking people who INHABITED THE COAST OF TABASCO AND CAMPECHE. Famed as LONG-DISTANCE TRADERS AND SEAMEN, the PUTUN...expanded into Yucatan and settled at CHICHEN-ITZA around A.D. 981, bringing with them many earmarks of Mexican culture. When Quetzalcoatl and his TOLTEC FOLLOWERS arrived at Chichen-Itza from TULA in 987, they were cordially received by the PUTUN-ITZA, whose own Mexican [?] AFFINITIES encouraged them to enter into an ALLIANCE with the Toltecs" (Maya: The Riddle and Rediscovery of a Lost Civilization. Viking Penguin, Inc. N.Y. 1985, pp. 167-168).
Investigations have confirmed that PUTUN-ITZA influence was very extensive and that they maintained close COMMERCIAL TIES with the peoples of Central Mexico -- including the Toltecs. Reports Charles Gallenkamp --
"As warriors and MERCHANTS they were EXTREMELY AGGRESSIVE, and throughout the Postclassic Period they CONTROLLED TRADE ROUTES that extended from the Gulf Coast of Mexico around the Yucatan Peninsula to Honduras. It is also probable that the TOLTEC influences so firmly imprinted on the ruins of Chichen-Itza may be attributable to the PUTUN. Quite possibly they either fostered incursions into Yucatan by the Toltecs (with whom the Putun regularly TRADED) or they were allied with Toltec warriors brought in by the Putun-Itza TO PROTECT THEIR FAR-FLUNG TRADING NETWORKS" (ibid., p. 168).
The Yucatan was not the only scene of PUTUN incursions into the territory of the Maya. "By the middle of the NINTH CENTURY [A.D.]," writes Gallenkamp, "the PUTUN had penetrated the southern lowlands, pushing their way up to the USUMACINTA RIVER and along the Rio Pasion to Seibal and Altar de Sacrificios."
With the Putun came new, sophisticated types of ceramics known as FINE ORANGE and FINE GRAY which were widely traded in many areas. They incised strange Mexicanized portraits of their elite on stone monuments at Seibal which almost certainly (according to the experts) represent PUTUN LORDS who seized control of the city. These date from 850-900 A.D.
"Among the invading armies," notes Gallenkamp, "were WELL-ORGANIZED MILITARY ORDERS using the EAGLE and JAGUAR as their symbols. Newly introduced weapons included cotton armor, atlatls, SLINGS, and obsidian-edged swords, and there was an INCREASED EMPHASIS ON MILITARISM in ALL phases of political and religious life. HUMAN SACRIFICE began to be practiced on a SCALE NEVER BEFORE APPROACHED in the Classic period, with the ruthless TOLTEC-ITZA soldiers assuming a vital ritualistic function as providers of CAPTIVES FOR SACRIFICIAL PURPOSES" (ibid., pp. 169-170).
The PUTUN had all the earmarks of their ancestors the Canaanites!
Another Route to the New World?
All modern historians and anthropologists say that the American Indians have their roots in Asia and crossed the Bering Sea to Alaska at some remote time in history. Claims the Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia: "Most anthropologists believe that the majority of Indians are descended from a generalized ASIATIC MONGOLOID population and that they left ASIA before the development of the traits characteristic of Asiatic Mongols. The Indians migrated to the Western Hemisphere from northern Asia about 20,000 B.C., or earlier, VIA THE BERING STRAIT or the Aleutian Islands. Some anthropologists believe that a second and later migration brought peoples with increasingly pronounced MONGOLOID TRAITS to the Western hemisphere."
According to the encyclopedia: "The Indians subsequently spread through North and South America, from the Arctic Regions to the Strait of Magellan, and through the islands of the Caribbean Sea" (Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. N.Y. Vol. 2, p.7).
The Encyclopedia Britannica (1943 edition) states that
"it is practically certain that the peopling [of North America] took place FROM SIBERIA VIA BERING STRAIT, other land bridges to America being geologically too ancient to have served man....It follows that the RACIAL ORIGIN of the American Indian has to be sought IN ASIA. The findings of anthropometry bear out the inference. The Indian belongs obviously to the MONGOLOID DIVISION of the human species. He is BROWN SKINNED, with STRAIGHT, STIFF, BLACK HEAD HAIR, a MINIMUM OF BEARD AND BODY HAIR, a definitely BROAD FACE (in popular parlance, HIGH CHEEK BONES), and moderate prognathism. These traits are consonant among Indians, as among East Asiatics....The relations of the American Indian are...to the MONGOLOID STOCK as a whole rather than to any specific Mongolian people. THEY ARE PROBABLY CLOSEST TO THE EAST SIBERIANS" (Volume 16, p. 504).
Can this be true? Did the ancestors of the American Indians cross to the New World via the Bering Strait? If this is true, doesn't it blow everything I have just written right out the window? Conversely, how could ALL of the "experts" in today's scholarly community be wrong? What about the Indian traditions -- do any of the tribes trace their ancestry back across the Bering Sea to Siberia? Let us take a look.
Long before great cities of steel and glass arose above the landscape of the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, this area was the home to another nation -- an almost forgotten nation with its own traditions, history and past heroes. With the arrival of the Europeans this nation was shattered and swept away to become mute entries in encyclopedias and works of history of the white man. But all was not lost. It left behind -- in ancient pictographs -- a record of its history to give us a last glimpse of Ancient America. This account is called the WALLAM OLUM (the RED RECORD), and the people who recorded it are the LENNI LENAPE -- later named the "DELAWARE INDIANS."
In The Red Record: The Oldest Native North American History, translated and annotated by David McCutchen, we read --
"The aboriginal source of the RED RECORD, the Lenni Lenape, or "ORIGINAL PEOPLE," were widely known and respected among the Indian tribes. With a deep knowledge of their past and a tradition of PICTOGRAPHIC RECORDS, the Lenni Lenape were uniquely qualified to write this chronicle of ancient heroes and events" (Avery Publishing Group Inc., Garden City Park, N.Y. 1993, p. 4.
Anthropologist Werner Muller (Pre-Columbian American Religions) adds --
"In the long chain of tribes along the East Coast, one ethnic group stands out, not only in the European written sources but also in the judgment of the Indians themselves. This remarkable group was the DELAWARE, called in their own language the LENNI LENAPE. They had a special status in the eyes of many other Indian peoples: they were reverenced as the 'grandfathers,' representatives, after a fashion, of authority and legality" (p. 162).
The Wallam Olum (the Red Record) is the record of the Delaware Indians' ancient history -- told in the form of an epic song. "Recorded in pictures and words, the saga tells of the rise to glory of the Lenni Lenape and their great Lenape family, also called the ALGONQUIANS, the most populous and widespread Native American language group in ancient North America. The Delawares today firmly believe that this is the record of their past" (The Red Record: The Oldest Native North American History, p. 4).
The Algonquian people, comprised of several hundred tribes, occupied most of the Canadian region lying to the south of Hudson Bay between the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Also, they occupied that section of what is now the United States extending northward from North Carolina and Tennessee. In addition, Algonquian tribes lived in various isolated areas to the south and west -- including parts of what are now South Carolina, Iowa, Wyoming and Montana.
The best known of the Algonquian tribes include the Algonquian (from which the stock takes its name), Amalecite, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Conoy, Cree, Delaware, Fox, Gros Ventre, Kickapoo, Massachuset, Miami, Micmac, Mohegan, Mohican, Montagnais, Musi, Narraganset, Naskapi, Nipmuc, Ojibway, Ottawa, Pequot, Potawatomi, Sac, Shawnee, Tete de Boule and Wampanoag.
The Encyclopedia Britannica (1943 edition) relates that this stock "is one of the great stocks of native North America, perhaps the largest on the continent in point of area occupied, extending around latitude 55 degrees continuously from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains, and to the south less regularly as far as Cape Hatteras and the Ohio river. This is essentially the natural region of northern woodland, whose coniferous forests the Algonkin tribes occupied almost exclusively and the deciduous ones largely" (Vol. 1, p. 622).
The encyclopedia goes on to note --
"In general the southern Algonkin tribes farmed, the northern ones were non-agricultural. Three divisions drifted into the northern Plains and became nomadic bison hunters: the Arapaho and Gros Ventre, the Blackfeet and the Cheyenne. The speech of the first two is highly specialized, indicating their separation for a long time; the Cheyenne are later comers in the Plains. In recent generations some of the Cree and Ojibway have begun to take on the Plains type of customs" (Vol. 1, p. 622).
Cyclone Covey, in his article Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, informs us that when the Algonquin ancestors wended their way to the Great Lakes forests, some groups descended into the St. Lawrence Valley, while one group in particular extended up to North Labrador and down to New Jersey.
In recent years anthropologists have come to realize that the speech of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland, the Kootenay of British Columbia and the Wiyot and Yurok of the Californian coast is a remote branch of Algonquin.
The Red Record begins its narrative with the Lenape accounts of Creation and of the great flood of Genesis 7. It continues with the crossing of the Lenape people FROM SIBERIA INTO THE NEW WORLD, and of their encounters with the people who were already inhabiting the North American continent. It includes a TIME SCALE covering more than a THOUSAND YEARS, and an ACCURATE RECORD of their travel over THOUSANDS OF MILES from the cold wastes of Arctic Siberia to the Eastern Seaboard of the United States.
"The compressed, evocative nature of the words of the Red Record," writes translator David McCutchen, "is consistent with descriptions of the Lenape language. William Penn, for example, called the language 'lofty, yet narrow, but LIKE THE HEBREW; in signification full, like short-hand in writing; one word serveth the place of three, and the rest are supplied by the Understanding of the Hearer...And I must say, that I know not a Language spoken in Europe, that hath words of more sweetness or greatness, in Accent and Emphasis, than theirs'" (The Red Record, p.16).
Crossing the Sea
To retrace the migration of the Lenni Lenape to the New World, we must project ourselves into the remote wilderness of Siberia, and into the most distant historical past revealed in the Red Record. The eastern part of Siberia is vast -- as large as the continental United States. To the north, the cold, dry tundra of the NORTH SLOPE extends eastward in a long peninsula of barren mountains leading to the Bering Strait. In the center are the evergreen taiga forests, situated beyond low ranges of windswept mountains. These vast forests are watered by the great LENA RIVER -- a river longer than the Mississippi.
To the west, Siberia extends all the way to the Ural Mountains, and for about a third of its area -- from the Urals to some distance beyond the Yenisey River -- is a great plain with few sharp elevations. Sloping generally downwards, from south to north in the west part of this area, are large tracts of swamp punctuated with thousands of small lakes.
The shore of the Arctic Ocean is low and flat. Almost the entire north section of Siberia, extending from the Arctic Ocean south for almost 250 miles, is TUNDRA -- treeless and marshy plains that are perpetually frozen to great depths. The tundra surface thaws sufficiently in summer to permit short-lived vegetation (such as perennial mosses, lichens, and stunted shrubs) to grow, providing support for the migrating REINDEER HERDS.
The evidence in the words and symbols of the Red Record clearly show how, from the cold mountains of their first home, the LENAPE HUNTERS FOLLOWED THE HERDS OF REINDEER and the rivers northward -- spreading into the snowy TUNDRA of the NORTH SLOPE. When their enemies (the Snake people) fled eastward across the rugged and barren wastelands, THE LENAPE PURSUED THEM UNTIL THEY REACHED EASTERN SIBERIA. Hard-working and ingenious, the Lenapi prospered, living off the herds in the plains of Eastern Siberia.
Notes David McCutchen: "The traditions of the Lenni Lenape, as recorded by Heckewelder in a later time when they were known as the Delaware Indians, state that their ancestors came out of a LAND OF ICE AND SNOW in the FAR NORTHWEST of the continent. Other traditions of their closest relatives -- the NANTICOKES, the SHAWNEE, and the MOHICANS -- give even more detail, including what may be descriptions of THE ACTUAL CROSSING OF THE BERING STRAIT itself" (ibid., p. 38).
A Shawnee legend describing an exploration of the New World was recorded from an oral story related by an old Shawnee at Piqua in Ohio in 1823. It describes in great detail AN ANCIENT ARCTIC HOME, and how and why their ancestors crossed the ocean -- which in the legend is called the GREAT SALT LAKE. "...At some indefinitely remote past, they had arrived at the main land after CROSSING A WIDE WATER. Their ancestors succeeded in this by...walk[ing] over the water as if it had been land."
The symbols and words found in the Red Record clearly show that this crossing was accomplished on a BRIDGE OF ICE; and this event is echoed by a NANTICOKE legend put down in writing in 1767 by the missionary Charles Beatty --
"They came to a GREAT WATER. One of the Indians that went before them tried the depth of it by a long pole or reed, which he had in his hand, and found it too deep for them to wade. Upon their being nonplused, and not knowing how to get over it, their God made a BRIDGE over the water in one night, and the next morning, after they were all over, God took away the bridge" (Journal, p. 21).
The MOHICANS, also closely related to the Lenni Lenape, recalled this event. According to Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, in his Lenape and Their Legends, "the Mohican's description reflects the strong currents characteristic of the BERING STRAIT, as well as its abundant marine life, with great numbers of whales migrating between the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean" (pp. 136-137).
Even the mighty CHEYENNE, a LENAPE TRIBE of the great plains, have a tradition of this crossing. In an extraordinary narrative they recall
"...having lived in a land that was perpetually covered with ice and snow. Trying to escape the continual rule of Hoimaha [the winter storm], they started EASTWARD toward the sun. After many years, they came to a NARROW NECK OF SEA at a time when the water was frozen. As the people were about halfway across the frozen water, one of the young women discovered a horn sticking out of the ice.
"The horn took her fancy. Even in these difficult times of moving, the women and the children made sliding sticks from horns and managed to enjoy life a little more. The woman wanted this horn, for it was large and long, and would make a splendid sliding stick. She tried to pull the horn out of the ice, but the harder she pulled, the tighter the horn seemed to be imbedded. Finally, she called to her relatives for assistance. Some of the men came and helped her. But, like her, they were unable to pull the horn out. Then, they began to cut the horn, for they liked the girl and wanted to make her happy. As they cut deeper into the horn, blood spurted out in great gushes.
"The people were frightened and grouped together on both sides of the men who had been cutting the horn. Just as they realized that the horn must be that of a monster, they felt a great tremor and knew that the monster must be struggling below the FROZEN WATER. Before anyone could move away, the ICE suddenly broke, the horn disappeared, and a great chasm appeared. Some of the people were drowned. Many of them found themselves before an ever-widening channel of water, so they had to retreat to the land from whence they had come. THOSE ON THE SIDE TOWARD THE SUN watched their friends retreat; then, saddened by the insuperable gulf between them, they took flight onward IN PURSUIT OF THE SUN and moved INTO THE EAST and THE NEW LAND. Never have these people -- the Tsi-Tsi-Tsas [Cheyenne] -- forgotten this story" (Horn In The Ice, by Dusenberry, p. 12. Recorded in a personal interview with Rufus Wallowing, Lame Deer, Montana, 1955, who had heard it in 1951 from Frank Old Bird, age 80, of the Southern Cheyenne).
So where does this leave us? The evidence of modern scholars AND the traditions of the Lenni Lenape seem iron-clad. Some of the North American tribes must have come from Siberia -- crossing over the Bering Strait into the New World. Does that mean that the Indians come from Mongoloid stock rather than from Canaanite stock? Not at all! Notice!
The Red Record indicates that the Lenni Lenape were centered around the LENA RIVER in Central Siberia. In fact, LENAPE is derived from LENA -- the river that sustained them for a time in their wanderings. The words and symbols of the Record indicate a movement from this area northeast to the regions of the Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers. Here, to this day, can be found remnants of the Lenape and other groups who were left behind when their people migrated eastward toward the Bering Strait.
Apart from the Lenape there is a remnant, described by the Encyclopedia Britannica, and known by the name of YUKAGHIR:
"The Yukaghir are a Palaeo-Siberian tribe, mainly found now between the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers and occupied in HUNTING AND FISHING. They are very short, with yellow or BROWN COMPLEXION, DARK EYES AND HAIR, and SCANTY BEARDS. They are fast dying out, especially since the advance westwards of the Chukchee has lessened the number of WILD REINDEER" (1943 edition. Vol. 23, p. 874).
There is another interesting characteristic of the Yukaghir -- they lived in WIGWAMS just like the Lapps! Ethnologists have noticed that the Yukaghir, Chukchee and the Koryak on the Siberian side are IDENTICAL to the Dene, Tlingit and Haida on the American side in physique, speech and customs. These tribes, part of the great Na-Dene language group, sailed from the sea-otter trading-depot at the mouth of the Amur River (site of Vladivostok) via the Kamchatka Current past the Aleutian Islands to the Alaska Peninsula. From here the tribal bands strewed downcoast and inland -- some (the Apache) reaching into Mexico.
We have noted that the Canaanites in Scandinavia were pushed up into the Arctic region by the waves of incoming Israelites. Following a hunting and fishing economy and dependent upon the REINDEER for almost every aspect of their lives they, like their descendants the North American Indians, followed the herds in their annual migrations. In the summer the reindeer herds migrated EAST along the tundra of the North Slope looking for food -- and the Lapps followed them. Eventually they penetrated as far as Central Siberia and the area of the LENA RIVER.
The Lenni Lenape were the SAME stock as the migrating LAPPS, and therefore descendants of the Canaanites! Nordenstreng, in his Europas manniskoraser och folkslag (page 237), tells us that the crania of the Lapps are wide and short. In most cases they have a BROWNISH COMPLEXION, although one occasionally may see a light-complexioned one.
"Their hair is most often dark, straight, and coarse....The Lapps IN RUSSIA have grey eyes, but those in NORWAY, FINLAND, and SWEDEN have DARK EYES. As far as the Lapps are concerned, the growth of the beard is sparse and straggling." And, note this, "further characteristics of the Lapp type are relatively LONG ARMS and SHORT LEGS. The Lapp type has several features which are SIMILAR TO THE MONGOLIAN, yet WITHOUT the characteristically OBLIQUE EYES and the FLAT, WIDE NOSE" (pages 237, 238). In other words, the LAPPS ARE NOT MONGOLOID -- NEITHER ARE THE AMERICAN INDIANS!
The Canaanites reached the New World by many routes -- including that of the Bering Strait.
In 1838 a stone with strange markings was dug out of a mound near the Ohio River. Known as the GRAVE CREEK STONE, this artifact has caused much controversy in scholastic circles. M. Levy Bing reported to the Congress of Americanists at Nancy, in 1875, that he found 23 CANAANITE LETTERS in the inscription!
Barry Fell, author of numerous books on ancient civilizations, translated the inscription to read:
"The mound raised-on-high for Tasach
[His] queen caused-to-be-made."
Professor Fell identified the language of the Grave Creek stone as SPANISH PUNIC (closely related to the Canaanite) from the first-millennium B.C.
William F. Dankenbring, in his book Beyond Star Wars, records the use of Hebrew-sounding words amongst various North American tribes. Since Hebrew is very similar (almost identical) to the old Phoenician, these words were probably of CANAANITE origin. Says Dankenbring: "Say these two reputable scientists of the last century [Mariano Edward Rivero and John James von Tschudi], 'The use of Hebrew words [probably Phoenician] was NOT uncommon in the religious performances of the NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, and Adair assures us that they called an accused or guilty person: HAKSIT CANAHA, "A SINNER OF CANAAN;" and to him who was inattentive to religious worship, they said, TSCHI HAKSIT CANAHA, "YOU RESEMBLE A SINNER OF CANAAN" ' " (Triumph Publishing Co. 1978, pp. 101-102).
Dankenbring also notes that "the MIXTEC INDIANS [of CENTRAL AMERICA] squeezed ROYAL PURPLE DYE out of the SNAIL Purpura patula of the Pacific Ocean, much as the PHOENICIANS extracted the dye from the SNAILS Murex truncatus and Murex brandaris in the Mediterranean. Obviously, this knowledge was COMMUNICATED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC" (ibid., p. 87).
More and more scholars are beginning to realize that peoples from the Middle East and Europe reached the shores of the New World long before Christopher Columbus or storm-lost Vikings. "One STONE, found at Fort Benning, Georgia," writes Dankenbring, "has unusual markings all over it. I saw the stone myself, and took photographs of it....The inscription on the stone, he [Dr. Cyrus Gordon] asserts, is in the WRITING STYLE OF CANAAN, the promised land of the Hebrews" (ibid., p. 82).
I mentioned earlier that the Picts were known as Piki or Peukini; one of the Algonquin tribes known as the Piegan (usually lumped with the Blackfeet) called themselves Pikunni (Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, by Cyclone Covey).
The Assiniboin tribe retained a legend of ocean-crossing -- understanding Ireland to be their point of origin (ibid.).
Algonquin wigwams closely resembled Saharan Gaetulian huts which were introduced into Morocco by the Berbers (read Canaanites!) (ibid).
When Norwegian anthropologist Gutrum Gjessing excavated some sites at Varanger Fiord on the top of Norway at 70 degrees N (above the Arctic Circle), he found them to be identical to sites uncovered in Maine in the late 1800s. In 1968 anthropologist James Anderson confirmed that skeletons found at these sites were neither Eskimo nor European, but that the skulls resembled the brachycephalic type of the Lapps! The skeletons were always found with traces of red ochre -- prompting James Tuck to name them the "Red Paint Peoples." "But skeleton red-ochring and fine stone/bone/wood work [of the Maine sites] had a FAR OLDER European precedent" (Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, by Covey).
Covey goes on to say that "European and American sites alike featured standing slabs visible far at sea, anticipating megalithic cultures on both shores."
The Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland used to stain themselves with ochre from the waist up, and have been identified as remnants of the Red Paint Peoples. John Cabot encountered them in Newfoundland in 1497 and subsequent explorers confirmed Beothuk possession of the island -- their red ochre stained bodies commented on by late 16th-century Englishmen. Canadian authorities have linked the Beothuks with the Algonquin-speaking Montaignais, who resided extensively above the St. Lawrence seaway. Early 20th-century Newfoundland Indians referred to the now vanished Beothuks and the presert-day Montaignais interchangeably as Osa'gan'ax -- the Red People.
An anthropologist by the name of Speck regarded the Beothuk as an eastern branch of archaic Algonquin and "located their nucleus at Red Indian Lake in NW Newfoundland and beside Exploits River which issues from the east end, flows NE, east, then NE into Exploits Bay on the north coast. He ascertained their early-19th-century headquarters as Red Indian Point south of Millerton at the lake's NE end. Indian myths recall a Me'kwe'isit tribe, RED-PAINTED waist up. Ishit in Egyptian is Isis. Micmac for Beothuk: Megwe'dji'djik (Red People). These syllables all have Egyptian equivalents but different meanings" (Algonquins, Egyptians, and Uto-Aztecs, by Covey).
A Thorn in the Side
The events in the Book of Mormon pertaining to migrations to the New World are plainly bogus -- the American Indians on the whole are NOT descended from the Hebrews. There are a few groups of light-skinned Indians, such as the Mandans, who may be descended from the Israelites who LED the ancestors of the Maya to Mesoamerica, but they are few and diluted by intermarriage. It is the ANGLO-SAXON AMERICANS who are descended from the Hebrews, but that is another story.
On the other hand, the Indians are definitely NOT descended from the Mongoloid peoples of Asia -- as modern anthropologists would have you believe. The Indians of North, Central and South America are descended from CANAANITE STOCK and arrived in the New World by different routes -- some across the Atlantic Ocean, others across the icy wastes of Siberia.
It was ordained that the Canaanites would always be a THORN in the side of Israel. Notes J. H. Allen:
"But where Israel and Dan are, there, too, MUST THE CANAANITE BE, and it is a well-known fact that the settlers of southern Ireland are a vastly different people from those of northern Ireland, and that the difference IS IN THEIR ORIGIN, for they sprang from a DIFFERENT RACE. Moses said to Israel: "But if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land before you; then it shall come to pass that those which ye let remain of them SHALL BE PRICKS IN YOUR EYES AND THORNS IN YOUR SIDES, and shal VEX YOU in the land wherein ye dwell." (Num. 33:55) The Lord also said, "If ye do in anywise go back and cleave unto the REMNANT OF THESE NATIONS, even those that remain among you, and shall make marriages with them, and go in unto them, and they to you; know for a certainty that the Lord your God will no more drive out any of these nations from before you; BUT THEY SHALL BE SNARES AND TRAPS UNTO YOU." (Josh. 23:12-13.)" (Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p. 287).
Charles A. L. Totten concurs:
"But where DAN and ISRAEL are, there, too, we must find the CANAANITES (Num. xxxiii.55; Josh. xxiii.13). We have them in the Irish -- THE SOUTHERN IRISH. These lived with Dan and Simeon in Palestine, and CAME WITH HIM TO IRELAND. They boast of their PHOENICIAN ORIGIN (Fenians!), had the sixteen-letter alphabet, etc., etc., and are, to this day, "hewers of wood and haulers of water," and "thorns in the side and pricks in the eyes" of the English and Americans only. Truly the CANAANITE is still in the land of Israel, but they are left for a purpose (Jud. iii.1-4); namely, to prove Israel" (Our Race: Its Origin and its Destiny. The "Our Race" Publishing Co., New Haven, Conn. 1890, p. 129).
How very true! The Canaanites have been a thorn in the side of Israel in all her wanderings. When Joshua entered the Promised Land of Palestine the Canaanites met them; and when The Israelites entered the Promised Land of America the Canaanites were there to meet them! YEHOVAH's Word never fails!
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