Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH):
The Jews, Khazaria, and the Judahites!
These comments were made by Benjamin Freedman in a letter to Dr. David Goldstein, LLD, of Boston, dated Oct. 10, 1954. They are printed here in part. The entire letter is published in the book, Facts Are Facts. Benjamin Freedman, a Jew and former owner of the Woodbury Soap Company, spent much of his considerable fortune to study and expose his Jewish background.
by Benjamin Freedman & John D. Keyser
You will probably also be astonished as the 150,000,000 Christians years ago when I electrified the nation with the first publication by me of the facts disclosed by my many years of research into the origin and the history of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe. My many years of intensive research established beyond the question of any doubt, contrary to the generally accepted belief held by Christians, that the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe at any time in their history in eastern Europe were never the legendary "lost ten tribes" of Bible lore. That historic fact is incontrovertible.
Relentless research established as equally true that the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe at no time in their history could be correctly regarded as the direct lineal descendants of the legendary "lost ten tribes" of Bible lore. The so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe and modern history cannot legitimately point to a single ancestor who ever even set a foot on the soil of Palestine in the era of Bible history. Research also revealed that the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe were never "Semites," are not "Semites" now, nor can they ever be regarded as "Semites" at any future time by any stretch of the imagination. Exhaustive research also irrevocably rejects as a fantastic fabrication the generally accepted belief by Christians that the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe are the legendary "Chosen People" so very vocally publicized by the Christian clergy from their pulpits.
One of History's Best Kept Secrets
Maybe you can explain to me, my dear Dr. Goldstein, the reason why and just how the origin and the history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom was so well concealed from the world for so many centuries? What secret mysterious power has been able for countless generations to keep the origin and the history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom out of history text-books and out of classroom courses in history throughout the world? The origin and history of the Khazars and Khazar kingdom are certainly incontestable historic facts and also establish beyond any question of doubt the origin and history of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe.
The origin and history of the Khazars and Khazar kingdom and their relationship to the origin and early history of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe was one of history's best kept secrets until wide publicity was given in recent years to my research on this subject. Do you not think, my dear Dr. Goldstein, that it is time this whole subject was dragged out of its hiding place?
In the year of 1948 in the Pentagon in Washington I addressed a large assembly of the highest officers of the United States Army in the G2 branch of military intelligence on the highly explosive geopolitical situation in eastern Europe and the Middle East. Then as now, that area of the world was a potential threat to the peace of the world and to the security of this nation. I explained to them fully the origin of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom. I felt then as I feel now that without a clear and comprehensive knowledge of that subject it is not possible to understand or to evaluate properly what has been taking place since 1917, the year of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. It is the "key" to that problem.
Upon the conclusion of my talk a very alert Lieutenant Colonel present at the meeting informed me that he was the head of the history department of one of the largest and highest scholastic rated institutions of higher education in the United States. He had taught history there for 16 years. He had recently been called back to Washington for further military service. To my astonishment he informed me that he had never in all his career as a history teacher or otherwise heard the word "Khazar" before he heard me mention it there. That must give you some idea, my dear Dr. Goldstein, of how successful that mysterious secret power was with their plot to "black out" the origin and the history of the Khazars and Khazar Kingdom in order to conceal from the world and particularly Christians the true origin and the history of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe.
The Russian conquest in the tenth through thirteenth centuries of the little-known-to-history Khazars apparently ended the existence for all time of the little-known-to-history 800,000 square mile sovereign kingdom of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe, known then as the Khazar Kingdom. Historians and theologians now agree that this political development was the reason for the "Important Change in the Wording of the `Kol Nidre'" by Meir ben Samuel in the eleventh century, and for the policy adopted by the so-called or self-styled "Jews" that "The Law of Revocation in Advance was Not Made Public." Will you be patient with me while I review here as briefly as I can the history of that political emergence and disappearance of a nation from the pages of history?
The Kingdom of the Khazars
Prior to the tenth century the Khazar Kingdom had already been reduced by Russian conquests to an area of about 800,000 square miles.
As you will observe on this map reproduced from the Jewish Encyclopedia the territory of the Khazar in the tenth century was by far the largest of any in Europe. The population of the Kingdom was made up for the most part of the Khazars with the addition of the remnants of the populations of the 25 peaceful agricultural nations that had inhabited this approximate 1,000,000 square miles before their conquest by the invading Khazars. In the first century B.C. the Khazars invaded eastern Europe from their homeland in Asia. The Khazars invaded eastern Europe via the land route between the north end of the Caspian Sea and the south end of the Ural Mountains.
The Khazars were not "Semites." They were an Asiatic Mongoloid nation. They are classified by modern anthropologists as Turko-Finns racially. From time immemorial the homeland of the Khazars was in the heart of Asia. They were a very warlike nation. The Khazars were driven out of Asia finally by the nations in Asia with whom they were continually at war. The Khazars invaded eastern Europe to escape further defeats in Asia. The very warlike Khazars did not find it difficult to subdue and conquer the 25 peaceful agricultural nations occupying approximately 1,000,000 square miles in eastern Europe. In a comparatively short period the Khazars established the largest and most powerful kingdom in Europe, and probably the wealthiest also.
The Khazars were a pagan nation when they invaded eastern Europe. Their religious worship was a mixture of phallic worship and other forms of idolatrous worship practiced in Asia by pagan nations. This form of worship continued until the seventh century. The vile forms of sexual excesses indulged in by the Khazars as their form of religious worship produced a degree of moral degeneracy the Khazar's king could not endure.
The Conversion of the Khazars
In the seventh century King Bulan, ruler at that time of the Khazar Kingdom, decided to abolish the practice of phallic worship and other forms of idolatrous worship and make one of the three monotheistic religions, about which he knew very little, the new state religion. After a history session with representatives of the three monotheistic religions, King Bulan decided against Christianity and Islam and selected as the future state religion the religious worship then known as "Talmudism," and now known and practiced as "Judaism." This event is well documented in history.
King Bulan and his 4,000 feudal nobles were promptly converted by rabbis imported from Babylonia for that event. Phallic worship and other forms of idolatry were thereafter forbidden. The Khazar kings invited large numbers of rabbis to come and open synagogues and schools to instruct the population in the new form of religious worship. It was now the state religion. The converted Khazars were the first population of so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe. So-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe after the conversion of the Khazars are the descendants of the Khazars converted to "Talmudism," or as it is now known "Judaism," by the mass conversion of the Khazar population.
After the conversion of King Bulan, none but a so-called or self-styled "Jew" could occupy the Khazar throne. The Khazar Kingdom became a virtual theocracy. The religious leaders were the civil administrators also. The religious leaders imposed the teachings of the Talmud upon the population as their guide to living. The ideologies of the Talmud became the axis of political, cultural, economic and social attitudes and activities throughout the Khazar kingdom. The Talmud provided civil and religious law.
What the Jewish Scholars Say
It might be very interesting for you, my dear Dr. Goldstein, if you have the patience, to allow me to quote for you here from Volume IV, pages 1 to 5, of the Jewish Encyclopedia. The Jewish Encyclopedia refers to the Khazars as "Chazars." The two spellings are optional according to the best authorities. The two are pronounced alike. Either Khazar or "Chazar" is pronounced like the first syllable of "costume" with the word "Czar" added onto it. It is correctly pronounced "cos(tume) Czar." The Jewish Encyclopedia has five pages on the Khazars but I will skip through them:
"CHAZARS: A people of Turkish origin whose life and history are interwoven with the very beginnings of the history of Jews of Russia...driven on by the nomadic tribes of the steppes and by their own desire for plunder and revenge...In the second half of the sixth century the Chazars moved westward...The kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in most of South Russia before the foundation of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (885)...At this time the kingdom of the Chazars stood at the height of its power and was constantly at war...At the end of the eighth century...the chagan (king) of the Chazars and his grandees, TOGETHER WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF HIS PEOPLE; EMBRACED THE JEWISH RELIGION...The Jewish population in the entire domain of the Chazars, in the period between the seventh and tenth centuries, must have been considerable...about the ninth century, IT APPEARS AS IF ALL THE CHAZARS WERE JEWS AND THAT THEY HAD BEEN CONVERTED TO JUDAISM ONLY A SHORT TIME BEFORE...It was one of the successors of Bulan named Obadiah, who regenerated the kingdom and STRENGTHENED THE JEWISH RELIGION. He invited Jewish scholars to settle in his dominions and founded SYNAGOGUES AND SCHOOLS. The people were instructed in the Bible, Mishnah, and the TALMUD and in the 'divine service of the hazzanim'...In their writings the CHAZARS USED THE HEBREW LETTERS...the Chazar languages predominated...
"Obadiah was succeeded by his son Isaac; Isaac by his son Moses (or Manasseh II); the latter by his son Nisi; and Nisi by his son Aarron II. King Joseph himself was a son of Aarron, and ascended the throne in accordance with the law of the Chazars relating to succession...The king had twenty-five wives all of royal blood, and sixty concubines, all famous beauties. Each one slept in a separate tent and was watched by a eunuch...this seems to have been the beginning of the downfall of the Chazar kingdom...The Russian Varangians established themselves at Kiev...until the final conquest of the Chazars by the Russians... After a hard fight the Russians conquered the Chazars...Four years later the Russians conquered all of the Chazarian territory east of the Azov...Many members of the Chazarian royal family emigrated to Spain...Some went to Hungary, BUT THE GREAT MASS OF THE PEOPLE REMAINED IN THEIR NATIVE COUNTRY."
The greatest historian on the origin and the history of the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe was Professor H. Graetz, himself a so-called or self-styled "Jew." Professor H. Graetz points out in his famous History of the Jews that as so-called or self-styled "Jews" in the Khazar Kingdom, they believed these converted Khazars to be the "lost ten tribes." These rumors were no doubt responsible for the legend which grew up that Palestine was the "homeland" of the converted Khazars. On page 141 in his History of the Jews Professor H. Graetz states:
"The Chazars professed a coarse religion, which was combined with sensuality and lewdness...After Obadia came a long series of Jewish Chagans (kings) for according to a fundamental law of the state, only Jewish rulers were permitted to ascend the throne...For some time the Jews of other countries had no knowledge of the CONVERSION OF THIS POWERFUL KINGDOM TO JUDAISM, and when at last a vague rumor to this effect reached them, they were of the opinion that Chazaria was peopled by the remnant of the former ten tribes."
The Language of the Khazars
When Khazars in the first century B.C. invaded eastern Europe their mother-tongue was an Asiatic language, referred to in the Jewish Encyclopedia as the "Khazar languages." They were primitive Asiatic dialects without any alphabet or any written form. When King Bulan was converted in the seventh century, he decreed that the Hebrew characters he saw in the Talmud and other Hebrew documents were thereupon to become the alphabet for the Khazar language. The Hebrew characters were adopted to the phonetics of the spoken Khazar language. The Khazars adopted the characters of the so-called Hebrew language in order to provide a means for providing a written record of their speech. The adoption of the Hebrew characters had no racial, political or religious implication.
The western European uncivilized nations which had no alphabet for their spoken language adopted the alphabet of the Latin language under comparable circumstances. With the invasion of western Europe by the Romans, the civilization and the culture of the Romans was introduced into these uncivilized areas. Thus the Latin alphabet was adopted for the language of the French, Spanish, ENGLISH, Swedish and many other western European languages. These languages were completely foreign to each other yet they all use the same alphabet. The Romans brought their alphabet with their culture to these uncivilized nations exactly like the rabbis brought the Hebrew alphabet from Babylonia to the Khazars when they introduced them in the form of the Talmud's alphabet.
Since the conquest of the Khazars by the Russians and the disappearance of the Khazar Kingdom the language of the Khazars is known as Yiddish. For about six centuries the so-called or self-styled "Jews" of eastern Europe have referred to themselves while still resident in their native eastern European countries as "Yiddish" by nationality. They identified themselves as "Yiddish" also. There are today in New York City as you know, my dear Dr. Goldstein, many "Yiddish" newspapers, "Yiddish" theatres, and many other cultural organizations of so-called or self-styled "Jews" from eastern Europe which are identified publicly by the word "Yiddish" in their title.
Before it became known as the "Yiddish" language, the mother-tongue of the Khazars added many words to its limited ancient vocabulary as necessity required. These words were acquired from the languages of its neighboring nations with whom they had political, social or economic relations. Languages of all nations add to their vocabularies in the same way. The Khazars adapted words to their requirements from the German, the Slavonic and the Baltic languages. The Khazars adopted a great number of words from the German language. The Germans had a much more advanced civilization than their Khazar neighbors and the Khazars sent their children to German schools and universities.
The "Yiddish" language is not a German dialect. Many people are led to believe so because "Yiddish" has borrowed so many words from the German language. If "Yiddish" is a German dialect acquired from the Germans, then what language did the Khazars speak for the 1000 years they exited in eastern Europe before they acquired culture from the Germans? The Khazars must have spoken some language when they invaded eastern Europe. What was that language? When did they discard it? How did the entire Khazar population discard one language and adopt another all of a sudden? The idea is too absurd to discuss. "Yiddish" is the modern name for the ancient mother-tongue of the Khazars with added German, Slavonic and Baltic adopted and adapted numerous words.
"Yiddish" must not be confused with "Hebrew" because they both use the same characters as their alphabets. There is not one word of "Yiddish" in ancient "Hebrew" nor is there one word of "Hebrew" in "Yiddish." As I stated before, they are as totally different as Swedish and Spanish which both likewise use the same Latin characters for their alphabets. The "Yiddish" language is the cultural common denominator for all the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in or from eastern Europe. To the so-called or self-styled "Jews" in or from eastern Europe, "Yiddish" serves them like the English language serves the populations of the 48 states of the United States. Their cultural common denominator throughout the 48 states is the English languages, or wherever they may emigrate and resettle. The English language is the tie which binds them to each other. It is the same with the "Yiddish" language and so-called or self-styled "Jews" throughout the world.
"Yiddish serves another very useful purpose for so-called or self-styled "Jews" throughout the world. They possess in "Yiddish" what no other national, racial or religious group can claim. Approximately 98% of the world's so-called or self-styled "Jews" living in 42 different countries of the world today are either emigrants from eastern Europe, or their parents emigrated form eastern Europe. "Yiddish" is a language common to all of them as their first or second language according to where they were born. It is an "international" language to them. Regardless of what country in the world they may settle in they will always find co-religionists who also speak "Yiddish." "Yiddish" enjoys other international advantages too obvious to describe here. "Yiddish" is the modern language of a nation, which has lost its existence as a nation. "Yiddish" never had a religious implication, although using Hebrew characters for its alphabet. It must not be confused with words like "Jewish." But it is very much.
The Rise of Russia
Directly north of the Khazar Kingdom at the height of its power a small Slavic state was organized in 820 A.D. on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland where it flows into the Baltic Sea. This small state was organized by a small group of Varangians from the Scandinavian peninsula on the opposite shore of the Baltic Sea. The native population of this newly formed state consisted of nomad Slavs who had made their home in this area from earliest recorded history. This infant nation was even smaller than our state of Delaware. This newly-born state however was the embryo which developed into the great Russian Empire. In less than 1000 years since 820 A.D. this synthetic nation expanded its borders by ceaseless conquests until it now includes more than 9,500,000 square miles in Europe and Asia, or more than three times the area of continental United States, and they have not stopped.
During the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries the rapidly expanding Russian nation gradually swallowed up the Khazar kingdom, its neighbor directly to the south. The conquest of the Khazar kingdom by the Russians supplies history with the explanation for the presence after the thirteenth century of the large number of so-called or self-styled "Jews" in Russia. The large number of so-called or self-styled "Jews" in eastern Europe after the destruction of the Khazar Kingdom were thereafter no longer known as Khazars but as the "Yiddish" populations of these many countries. They so refer to themselves today.
In the many wars with her neighbors in Europe after the thirteenth century Russia was required to cede to her victors large areas which were originally part of the Khazar Kingdom. In this manner Poland, Lithuania, Galicia, Hungary, Rumania, and Austria were acquired from Russia territory, originally a part of the Khazar Kingdom. Together with this territory the nations acquired a segment of the population of so-called or self-styled "Jews" descended from the Khazars who once occupied the territory. These frequent boundary changes by the nations in eastern Europe explains the presence today of so-called or self-styled "Jews" in all these countries who all trace their ancestry back to the converted Khazars. Their common language, their common culture, their common religion, and their common racial characteristics classify them all beyond any question of doubt with the Khazars who invaded eastern Europe in the first century B.C. and were converted to "Talmudism" in the seventh century.
The so-called or self-styled "Jews" throughout the world today of eastern European origin make up at least 90% of the world's total present population of so-called or self-styled "Jews." The conversion of King Bulan and the Khazar nation in the seventh century accomplished for "Talmudism," or for "Judaism" as "Talmudism" is called today, what the conversion of Constantine and the western European nations accomplished for Christianity. Christianity was a small, comparatively unimportant religious belief practiced principally in the eastern Mediterranean area, until the conversion to the Christian faith of the large populations of the western European pagan nations after the conversion of Constantine. "Talmudism" the civil and religious code of the Pharisees, most likely would have passed out of existence like the many other creeds and cults practiced by the peoples in that area before, during and after "Pharisaism" assumed its prominent position among these creeds and cults in the time of Jesus. "Talmudism," as "Pharisaism" was called later, would have disappeared with all its contemporary creeds and cults but for the conversion of the Khazars to "Talmudism" in the seventh century. At that time "Talmudism" was well on its way towards complete oblivion.
In the year 986 A.D. the ruler of Russia, Vladimir III, became a convert to the Christian faith in order to marry a Catholic Slavonic princess of a neighboring sovereign state. The marriage was otherwise impossible. Vladimir III thereupon also made his newly-acquired faith the state religion of Russia, replacing the pagan worship formerly practiced in Russia since it was founded in 820 A.D. Vladimir III and his successors as the rulers of Russia attempted in vain to convert his so-called or self-styled "Jews," now Russian subjects, to Russia's Christian state religion, and to adopt the customs and culture of the numerically pre-dominant Russian Christian population. The so-called or self-styled "Jews" in Russia refused and resisted this plan vigorously.
They refused to adopt the Russian alphabet in place of the Hebrew characters used in their "Yiddish" language. They resisted the substitution of the Russian language for "Yiddish" as their mother-tongue. They opposed every attempt to bring about the complete assimilation of the former sovereign Khazar nation into the Russian nation. They resisted with every means at their disposal. The many forms of tension which resulted produced situations described by history as "massacres," "pogroms," "persecution," discrimination etc.
The Kol Nidre Oath
In Russia at that period in history it was the custom as in other Christian countries in Europe at that time to take an oath, vow or pledge of loyalty to the rulers, the nobles, the feudal landholders and others in the name of Jesus Christ. It was after the conquest of the Khazars by the Russians that the wording of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer was regarded as the "law." The effect of this "LAW OF REVOCATION IN ADVANCE" obtained for all who recited it each year on the eve of the Day of Atonement divine dispensation from all obligations acquired under "oaths, vows and pledges" to be made or taken in the COMING YEAR. The recital of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer on the eve of the Day of Atonement released those so-called or self-styled "Jews" from any obligation under "oaths, vows or pledges: entered into during the NEXT TWELVE MONTHS. The "oaths, vows and pledges" made or taken by so-called or self-styled "Jews" were made or taken with "tongue in cheek" for twelve months.
The altered version of the "Kol Nidre: (All Vows) prayer created serious difficulties for the so-called or self-styled "Jews" when its wording became public property. It apparently did not remain a secret very long, although the Talmud states, "the law of revocation in advance was not made public." The altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer soon became known as the "Jews Vow" and cast serious doubt upon "oaths vows or pledges" given to Christians by so-called or self-styled "Jews." Christians soon believed that "oaths, vows or pledges" were quite worthless when given by so-called or self-styled "Jews." This was the basis for so-called "discrimination" by governments, nobles, feudal landholders, and others who required oaths of allegiance and loyalty from those who entered their service.
All intelligent attempt was made to correct this situation by a group of German rabbis in 1844. In that year they called an international conference of rabbis in Brunswick, Germany. They attempted to have the "Kol Nidre" (All Vows) prayer completely eliminated from the Day of Atonement ceremonies, and entirely abolished from any religious service of their faith. They felt that the secular prologue to the Day of Atonement ceremonies was void of any spiritual implication and did not belong in the synagogue ritual. However, the preponderant majority of the rabbis attending that conference in Brunswick came from eastern Europe. They represented the congregations of Yiddish-speaking, so-called or self-styled "Jews" of converted Khazar origin in eastern Europe. They insisted that the altered version of the "Kol Nidre" (All Vow) prayer be retained exactly as it was then recited on the Day of Atonement. They demanded that it be allowed to remain as it had been recited in eastern Europe since the change by Meir ben Samuel six centuries earlier. It is today recited in exactly that form throughout the world by so-called or self-styled "Jews." Will the 150,000,000 Christians in the United States react any differently when they become more aware of its insidious implications?
The Expunging of New Testament Passages
How genuine can the implications, inferences and innuendoes of the so-called "brotherhood" and "interfaith" movements be under these circumstances? These so-called movements are sweeping the nation like prairie fires. If the Talmud is the axis of the political, economic, cultural and social attitudes and activities of so-called or self-styled "Jews" participating in these two so-called movements, how genuine are the "oaths, vows or pledges" taken or given in connection with these two so-called movements by so-called or self-styled "Jews?" It would be a superlative gesture of "brotherhood" or of "interfaith" if the National Conference of Christians and Jews succeeded in expunging from the Talmud all anti-Christ, anti-Christian, and anti-Christianity passages. At a cost of many millions of dollars the National Conference of Christians and Jews succeeded in expunging from the New Testament passages which so-called or self-styled "Jews" regarded as offensive to their faith. A great portion of the cost was supplied by so-called or self-styled "Jews." Christians might now supply funds to expunge from the Talmud passages offensive to the Christian faith. Otherwise the so-called "brotherhood" and "interfaith" movements are merely mockeries.
The Research of Raymond F. McNair
Raymond F. McNair, in his work, In Search of the Lost Ten Tribes, comments that "the native Canaanites were dark or colored in comparison with the people of the tribes of Judah (the Yahuds) and the Benjamin (Benjamites). Furthermore...the Sephardic Jews are more 'European' or 'Nordic' than they are 'Jewish'; and we have observed that there is a considerable degree of blondism among this branch of Jews. Many redheads are found among them. (For further verification of this, see the Jewish Encyclopedia, volume XII, art. 'Types, Anthropological,' pp. 291-95)" (p. 79).
McNair goes on to say: "And the French psychologist Maurice Muret published his book, L'Esprit Juif, in 1901. Chapter two of this work is devoted to 'The Israelite Race':
"'Today the Israelite race,' says Muret, 'presents us with TWO VERY DIFFERENT ASPECTS the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. These are, in effect, two very distinct types (of Jews). In the north of Russia and in Poland, in Germany, in Bohemia, one encounters a Jewish tribe with generally red hair, short beard, broad nose, grey, small, shrewd eyes, and stocky body. These are the Ashkenazim or Polish Jews or German Jews, or Tedeschi, thus names IN CONTRAST to the Spagnuoli or Sephardic, or Jews of Portugal and Spain. The latter are encountered in the Orient and in the Mediterranean Basin, principally in the Iberian Peninsula, from where they spread into The Netherlands. The Sephardic are thought to have conserved the ancient Jewish type much more purely than their brothers dispersed among the Central and Eastern Europeans. They are generally of a tall stature, occasionally beautiful. Their shoulders are narrow, the head well set, the face slightly prognathous. The nose is strong but narrow, often curved. The mouth is big, the hair abundant, and most frequently dark brown, occasionally red, very rarely blond. The eyes are brown, more rarely grey, very rarely blue....'" (L'Esprit Juif, chap. 2, art. 'The Israelite Race').
In the early 1940s, Carleton S. Coon similarly maintained that the Sephardim form one race and the Ashkenazim another. As to the former, "there can be no reasonable doubt that the Sephardim form a single population in the RACIAL SENSE, despite their geographical discontinuity," and that they "preserve with reasonable fidelity the RACIAL CHARACTER of their Palestinian ancestors. They are Mediterraneans, metrically of a central or generalized Mediterranean position, except that they have unusually narrow lateral dimensions of the face, including the distance between the eyes" (The Myth of the Jewish Race, p. 29).
This would certainly be the case if the Ashkenazim mainly consisted of descendants of the ancient Khazars who converted to Judaism back in the 8th century A.D. Continues Raymond McNair, "bear in mind that the Sephardic Jews (who are less mixed than the Ashkenazic Jews) have a great deal of blondism, blue eyes, and other features which are very similar to the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic races of Northwest Europe. The [Sephardic] Jews are, in fact, closely related to these peoples of Northwest Europe." All of these points lead us unerringly to the inescapable conclusion that the original Judahites (descendants of the tribe of Judah) were more "Nordic" in type than the modern term "Jewish" implies. The bulk of them resembled their tribal brothers who are represented today by the "Nordics" who inhabit Northwest Europe!
There is abundant historical and physical evidence to show that the original-type Judahites were not all short, olive-skinned, dark-haired, broad-headed people with prominent noses!
The Genome Study of 2013
Benjamin Freedman's research was validated in 2013 when the following study by Dr. Eran Elhaik was published:
PUBLIC RELEASE: 16JAN-2013
New Study Sheds Light on the Origin of the European Jewish Population
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
"Despite being one of the most genetically analyzed groups, the origin of European Jews has remained obscure. However, a new study published online today (Thursday) in the journalGenome Biology and Evolution by Dr Eran Elhaik, a geneticist at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, argues that the European Jewish genome is a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, setting to rest previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. Elhaik's findings strongly support the Khazarian Hypothesis, as opposed to the Rhineland Hypothesis, of European Jewish origins. This could have a major impact on the ways in which scientists study genetic disorders within the population.
"The Rhineland Hypothesis has been the favored explanation for the origins of present-day European Jews, until now. In this scenario Jews descended from Israelite-Canaanite tribes left the Holy Land for Europe in the 7th century, following the Muslim conquest of Palestine. Then, in the beginning of the 15th century, a group of approximately 50,000 left Germany, the Rhineland, for the east. There they maintained high endogamy, and despite wars, persecution, disease, plagues, and economic hardships, their population expanded rapidly to around 8 million in the 20th century. Due to the implausibility of such an event, this rapid expansion was explained by Prof Harry Ostrer, Dr Gil Atzmon, and colleagues as a miracle. Under the Rhineland Hypothesis, European Jews would be very similar to each other and would have a predominant Middle Eastern ancestry.
"The rival explanation, the Khazarian Hypothesis, states that the Jewish-convert Khazars -- a confederation of Turkic, Iranian, and Mongol tribes who lived in what is now Southern Russia, north of Georgia and east of Ukraine, and who converted to Judaism between the 7th and 9th centuries -- along with groups of Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews, formed the basis of eastern Europe's Jewish population when they fled eastward, following the collapse of their empire in the 13th century. European Jews are thus expected to exhibit heterogeneity between different communities. While there is no doubt that the Judeo-Khazars fled into Eastern Europe and contributed to the establishment of Eastern European Jewry, argument has revolved around the magnitude of that contribution.
"Dr Elhaik's paper,'The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses', examined a comprehensive dataset of 1,287 unrelated individuals of 8 Jewish and 74 non-Jewish populations genotyped over 531,315 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This was data published by Doron Behar and colleagues in 2010, which Elhaik used to calculate seven measures of ancestry, relatedness, admixture, allele sharing distances, geographical origins, and migration patterns. These identified the Caucasus-Near Eastern and European ancestral signatures in the European Jews' genome along with a smaller, but substantial Middle Eastern genome.
"The results were consistent in depicting a Caucasus ancestry for all European Jews. The analysis showed a tight genetic relationship between European Jews and Caucasus populations and pinpointed the biogeographic origin of the European Jews to the south of Khazaria, 560 kilometers from Samandar -- Khazaria's capital city. Further analyses yielded a complex multi-ethnical ancestry with a slightly dominant Caucasus -- Near Eastern, large South European and Middle Eastern ancestries, and a minor Eastern European contribution.
"Dr Elhaik writes, 'The most parsimonious explanation for our findings is that Eastern European Jews are of Judeo-Khazarian ancestry forged over many centuries in the Caucasus. Jewish presence in the Caucasus and later Khazaria was recorded as early as the late centuries BCE and reinforced due to the increase in trade along the Silk Road, the decline of Judah (1st-7th centuries), and the rise of Christianity and Islam. Greco-Roman and Mesopotamian Jews gravitating toward Khazaria were also common in the early centuries and their migrations were intensified following the Khazars' conversion to Judaism...The religious conversion of the Khazars encompassed most of the Empire's citizens and subordinate tribes and lasted for the next 400 years until the invasion of the Mongols. At the final collapse of their empire in the 13th century, many of the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe and later migrated to Central Europe and admixed with the neighboring populations.'
"Dr Elhaik's findings consolidate, otherwise conflicting results describing high heterogeneity among Jewish communities and relatedness to Middle Eastern, Southern European, and Caucasus populations that are not explained under the Rhineland Hypothesis. Although Dr Elhaik's study linked European Jews to the Khazars, there are still questions to be answered. How substantial is the Iranian ancestry in modern-day Jews? Since Eastern European Jews arrived from the Caucasus, where did Central and Western European Jews come from? If there was no mass migration out of Palestine at the 7th century, what happened to the ancient Judeans?"
The Iberian Jews had a strong tradition that their roots extended back to a time before the rule of King Solomon. They believed that the biblical Adoniram -- King Solomon's tax controller and emissary to the West -- whose tomb was alleged to be in Spain -- visited Iberia along with other Jewish communities all around the Mediterranean Sea as one of Solomon's tax collectors.
Judahites settled in the land of Sepharad (or Sefarad), as Spain was known in the Hebrew language, very early on. It was also claimed that a large number of them arrived in Spain soon after the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II conquered Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple in 586 B.C. There was a legend among the Sephardim that Toletum (Toledo), the capital city of Spain, was founded by Judahite refugees from Jerusalem. A popular etymology explained its name (pronounced by the Judahites "Tolaitola") to be derived from the Hebrew word "tolatola" meaning exile or, according to another explanation, from "toledoth" meaning generations. The Sephardim considered this city a second Jerusalem and recreated a virtually new Palestine around it: the towns of Escaluna, Maqueda, Jopez and Azeque were erected in the adjacent lands in memory of the Palestinian Ashkalon, Makedda, Joppa (Yafo) and Azeka. The Ibn-Daud and Abrabanel (Abravanel) families were proud to claim their descent from the House of King David -- Solomon's father. Judahite communities were also founded in Cathago Nova (Cartagena), Cordoba, Granada, Saragosse (Zara-gossa), Taragona and all over the Iberian peninsula.
After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 A.D., these early Iberian Judahite immigrants were joined by those who had been enslaved by the Romans during the Jewish-Roman Wars (70 and 135 A.D.) and dispersed to the extreme west. One estimate (although acknowledged as being perhaps "exaggerated") places the number of Judeans (Judahites) carried off to Iberia during this period at 80,000. Notes the Encyclopaedia Britannica:
"Already, before the destruction of Jerusalem [70 A.D.], the Diaspora had been a familiar phenomenon in Europe. The prisoners captured in innumerable wars [with the Romans] and distributed through the Empire as slaves had been followed (if not preceded) by merchants and traders. Latin writers from the period of Augustus [Caesar] onwards show the extent to which Jewish [Judahite] practices were spread throughout the civilized world of their day. Paul found them in Greece and Italy, and the infant church consistently advanced where the synagogue had blazed out the way. By the beginning of the 4th century, settlements were to be found as far afield as Spain and the Rhineland" (1943, Volume 13, p. 56).
It is certain that subsequent Judahite immigration into Iberia existed, reaching the region by traveling along both the northern African and southern European coasts of the Mediterranean. In fact, during the second and third centuries Judahites had established communities in towns throughout the Roman Empire.
The earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of Judahites in the Iberian peninsula -- in the form of tombstones dating from around the second to third century A.D. -- includes a tombstone inscribed in Hebrew, Latin and Greek found at Tortosa, a city south of Tarragona near Barcelona whose Hebrew text reads, "Peace to Israel....This is the tomb of Meliosa, daughter of Yehuda [Judah] and [?] Miriam of blessed memory -- let her soul be gathered up in the bonds of eternal life. Amen. Peace...." Another stone is that of a Judahite child named Annia Salomonula, who died at the age of one year, four months, and one day. This tombstone was found at Adra, in the province of Almeria -- a coastal city to the east of Granada. The inscription in Latin speaks of her as a Judaea (Judahite girl).
Yet another migration of Judahites occurred in the 9th century. After the enslaved Judahites were sent into exile in 70 A.D., the main Judahite community in the east was Babylonia. It was the only place in the then known world where Christianity did not take over and, therefore, the Judahites thrived there. They built their own yeshivas and lived autonomously. According to The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (ISBE, 1955 edition): "In the time of Christ, Josephus could speak of the Jews in Babylonia by 'innumerable myriads" (Antiquities, XI, v, 2). He also tells us of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus transferred from Babylon and Mesopotamia to Phrygia and Syria....Babylonia remained a focus of eastern Judaism for centuries...The two chief centers of Mesopotamian Judaism were Nehardea, a town on the Euphrates, and Nisibis on the Mygdonius, an affluent of the Chaboras, which were also centers of Syrian Christianity" (Volume 2, p. 856a).
There is considerable evidence that the apostle Peter visited these communities before his death in February of 68 A.D. In support of this we have the volume entitled A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, by Drs. R. Jemieson, A. R. Fausset and D. Brown of Great Britain (1873 edition -- Part Two) which states in its article on "Babylon":
"How unlikely that in a friendly salutation the enigmatical title given in prophecy (John, Revelation 17:5), should be used! Babylon was the centre from which the Asiatic dispersion whom Peter addresses was derived. PHILO, Legatio ad Caium, section 36, and JOSEPHUS, Antiquities, 15, 2.2; 23:12 inform us that Babylon contained a great many Jews [Judahites] in the apostolic age (whereas those at Rome were comparatively few, about 8000, JOSEPHUS 17.11); so it would naturally be visited by the apostle of the circumcision. It was the headquarters of those whom he had so successfully addressed on Pentecost, Acts 2:9, Jewish "Parthians...dwellers in Mesopotamia" (the Parthians were then masters of Mesopotamian Babylon); these he ministered to in person" (p. 514b).
In the 9th century, the Judahite community in Babylon began to decline, so many of them went to North Africa, which was then populated by two Moslem tribes -- the Berbers and the Moors. The Judahites saw that they had opportunity with them, particularly with the Moors, who were less religious and, therefore, more tolerant. In other Moslem countries where the Judahites lived, they had to accept the status of dhimmis, second-rate citizens. Their synagogues had to be unobtrusive, and they had to keep a low profile. All that changed with the Moors. Their alliance with the Judahites lasted almost 400 years, and by the time the Moors were emigrating from North Africa into Spain, they brought along the Judahites -- not as dhimmis but as equals. Thus the Iberian Judahite communities were reinforced.
The Iberian (Sephardic) Judahites were descendants of Middle Eastern ancestors who came to the Iberian Peninsula in stages from Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria and North Africa. "In effect," states Joseph A. D. Sutton, "Jewish Spain was merely an extension of the Middle East, to all extents and purposes, the Sephardim did not substantially differ from their brothers in the Fertile Crescent, in language, religious practices and endeavors." The Ashkenazi Jews, however, are vastly different!
The Other Judahites
Among the Saxon invaders of Britain were the JUTES, a people who came (under the leadership of the brothers Hengist and Horsa) from a part of Denmark still called JUTLAND, to settle in Kent and the Isle of Wight. This occurred in the year 449 A.D.
The importance of this becomes apparent when we remember that the Israel people were divided into TWO separate nations -- Israel and Judah, and that when the Assyrians conquered Israel and drove the Israelites away into captivity in MEDIA, they also took some of the people from the country districts of Judah. It is certain, therefore, that among the Israelites in Media there was a distinct group who would be known by a plural form of the name Judah -- Judahites, Judae, Judai, Judi, or Judes.
This becomes clear when we remember the great change which took place in the languages of northern Europe some time previous to 100 B.C., whereby a great many words which had previously had in them the sound of our letter "d" changed this to the sound of "t". (Grimm's Law). As this change occurred during the years in which the Saxons were migrating to Western Europe from their old home east of the Black Sea, it is obvious that the people who arrived in Denmark as Jutes must have started out as JUDES or Judai.
Further, as all of the Saxon tribes, including the Jutes, were descended from the SACAE (Sacasene) of Media, it follows that the Sacae must have had among them a tribe called Judes or Judai even before they left Media.
We have, therefore, six known facts to consider: (1) that when the Israel people were deported to Media by the Assyrians, part of the people of the Kingdom of Judah were taken with them; (2) that, as a consequence, there was among the Israelites in Media a group of Judahites, Judai, or Judes; (3) that among the Saxons who came into Britain there was a tribe called Jutes; (4) that during the time they were migrating westward across Europe the 'd' in their language became 't'; (5) that the Saxons were descended from the Sacae of Media; and (6) that Sacae is the name by which the Israelites in Media were known to the Persian historians.
It is certain, therefore, that the JUTES were originally called Judes or Judai, and that they were the descendants of that part of the people of JUDAH which the Assyrians carried away with Israel to Media.
"The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses by Eran Elhaik,Genome Biology and Evolution, DO I: 10.1093/gbe/evs119"
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